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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi

, Bhagpat, Sonepat, Jhajjar, Faridabad, and Gurgaon districts at its administrative boundary ( Figure 1a ). The NCR region also includes the Panipat, Rohtak, Rewari, Alwar, Bulandshahar, and Meerut districts. In the larger domain, the city lies between the Himalayas in the north and the Aravalis in the south, with the Yamuna River cutting through the city on the eastern side. Delhi is located in the plains with its elevation ranging from 213 to 290 m. Hot and dry summers and fairly cold winters

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

extensively in the METROMEX program, began to shift locale in the 1950s and then disappeared in the 1960s ( Changnon 1980 ). Tayanç et al. (1997) found no evidence of urban effects on precipitation for four large cities in Turkey, and a study of the Pearl River Delta of China reported reductions in precipitation ( Kaufmann et al. 2007 ). Despite decades of work, it remains unclear why the UHI can enhance precipitation in some regions while seemingly having no effect, or leading to decreases, in other

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

southeastern Oregon. The 3-yr average NEP was highest in the highly productive forests of the Coast Range, Cascades, and Klamath Mountains (9.23 ± 1.26, 6.45 ± 1.99, and 4.45 ± 1.99 TgC yr −1 ) and moderate in the croplands of the Willamette valley and semiarid eastern Cascades (2.81 ± 1.00 and 2.48 ± 1.48 TgC yr −1 ). It was lowest in the dry grasslands of the Columbia Plateau and the shrublands of the northern basin and Snake River Plain (0.81 ± 0.31, 0.72 ± 0.29, and 0.19 ± 0.13 TgC yr −1 ), areas that

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.002 . 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.002 Graham , L. P. , J. Olsson , E. Kjellström , J. Rosberg , S.-S. Hellström , and R. Berndtsson , 2009 : Simulating river flow to the Baltic Sea from climate simulations over the past millennium . Boreal Environ. Res. , 14 , 173 – 182 . Guillod , B. P. , B. Orlowsky , D. G. Miralles , A. J. Teuling , and S. I. Seneviratne , 2015 : Reconciling spatial and temporal soil moisture effects on afternoon

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

changing climate over North America . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 120 , 1091–1108 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022055 . Gerten , D. , S. Hagemann , H. Biemeans , F. Saeed , and M. Konzmann , 2011 : Climate change and irrigation: Global impacts and regional feedbacks. WATCH Tech. Rep. 47, 14 pp . Haddeland , I. , D. P. Lettenmaier , and T. Skaugen , 2006 : Effects of irrigation on the water and energy balances of the Colorado and Mekong river basins . J. Hydrol. , 324 , 210 – 223

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

. , 116 , D20114 , doi: 10.1029/2011JD015759 . Lo , J. C. F. , A. K. H. Lau , F. Chen , J. C. H. Fung , and K. K. M. Leung , 2007 : Urban modification in a mesoscale model and the effects on the local circulation in the Pearl River Delta region . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 46 , 457 – 476 , doi: 10.1175/JAM2477.1 . McGregor , H. V. , M. Dima , H. W. Fischer , and S. Mulitzal , 2007 : Rapid 20th-century increase in coastal upwelling off northwest Africa . Science , 315

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