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Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction Characterized by enhanced water vapor transport in long and narrow corridors in the lower troposphere, atmospheric rivers (ARs) play important roles in the global water cycle ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ) and deliver precious freshwater to many arid/semiarid regions ( Guan et al. 2010 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Rutz and Steenburgh 2012 ), but they can also represent a significant hazard around the globe due to the associated extreme wind and precipitation (e.g., Waliser and Guan

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

CREs counteract one another. In contrast, the underestimation of SW CRE in MERRA-2 during the dry season is evident in the net atmospheric CRE, with a minimum in the warming as a result of clouds within the column in July. This coincides with MERRA-2’s annual minimum in cloud fraction. d. Regional radiation budget Land surface changes such as deforestation, along with the presence of the Amazon River and its tributaries, create a nonuniform landscape within the Amazon rain forest. The surface

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

are a similar number of events in both groupings (~200; see Table S1 in the supplemental material). This number is representative of roughly 10% of the number of days with at least 1 mm of precipitation as opposed to the total number of days within the time period due to the threshold used in the percentile calculation. Note that such a compositing approach has been used to study events (e.g., atmospheric rivers) in other regions ( Grotjahn and Faure 2008 ; Warner et al. 2012 ; Gao et al. 2014

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

, there remain uncertainties whose origin and characteristics can be complex; thus, evaluation and validation of ET (and sensible heating and soil moisture) estimates is an ongoing process with assessments that have targeted model formulation and input forcing ( Kato et al. 2007 ; Badgley et al. 2015 ) and used river discharge, GRACE, and field data ( Zaitchik et al. 2010 ; Rodell et al. 2011 ) for validation. Intercomparison and validation efforts within larger collaborative efforts of LandFlux

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 , doi: 10.1029/2000GL012745 . GMAO , 2015a : MERRA-2 instM_3d_asm_Np: 3d, monthly mean, instantaneous, pressure-level, assimilation, assimilated meteorological fields, version 5.12.4. Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC DAAC), accessed September 2015 , doi: 10.5067/2E096JV59PK7 . GMAO , 2015b : MERRA-2 instM_2d_int_Nx: 2d

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Rolf H. Reichle, Clara S. Draper, Q. Liu, Manuela Girotto, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, Randal D. Koster, and Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy

disseminated by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. We are grateful for access to the many datasets that supported this work and highly appreciate all those who made them possible, including USDA, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly NCDC), NASA GSFC, NOAA CPC, International Soil Moisture Network, Environment Canada CMC, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Columbia River Basin Climate Change Scenarios Database, California Data

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