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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

mesh. It is designed both for off-line or stand-alone use to simulate the water and energy budgets of large areas (e.g., large continental river basins, continents), and for use in coupled land–atmosphere models to simulate the role of the land surface in partitioning moisture and energy. Land surface characteristics required by the VIC model include soils data, topography, and vegetation characteristics. The soil texture is based on a 5′ Food and Agriculture Organization dataset ( FAO 1998 ). The

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Andrea J. Ray, Gregg M. Garfin, Margaret Wilder, Marcela Vásquez-León, Melanie Lenart, and Andrew C. Comrie

and rains are a hazard, especially in rural areas. In August 1996, severe monsoon storms caused extensive damage to private and public property in Yuma and Maricopa Counties, resulting in estimated emergency fund expenditures of $2.6 million ( Arizona Division of Emergency Management 2007 ). In 2002, severe summer thunderstorms caused damages of $1 million to the Gila River Indian Community (on 18 August of that year the Federal Emergency Management Agency discussed the storms’ impacts in a

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

, among others ( SMEX Science Team 2004 ). a. Study site The study site is located in northern Sonora, Mexico, within a rural region characterized by complex topography, ephemeral rivers, and seasonally green vegetation. The mean annual rainfall in the region ranges from 400 to 500 mm, with 50%–70% occurring during the monsoon ( CNA 2002 ). Figure 1 depicts the location of the study region, a 75 km × 50 km box, selected based upon its topographic variability as represented by a 90-m digital

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

, approximately, 29.0°N lies in the periphery of the core North American monsoon rainfall regime (e.g., Gochis et al. 2004 ; Gutzler et al. 2006). Our study area is roughly 50 km (east–west) by 75 km (north–south). Note the north–south-trending mountain ranges and river valleys in the study area that form part of the SMO. The topographic distribution is characterized by a high mean elevation and a large elevation range, which are primarily due to the effects of channel incision ( Coblentz and Riitters 2004

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Christopher J. Watts, Russell L. Scott, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Julio C. Rodriguez, John H. Prueger, William P. Kustas, and Michael Douglas

( Douglas et al. 2006 ). A site (TDF) was selected near Tesopaco, Sonora, in order to study these mechanisms in more detail. Another site was selected as part of the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04) in the Sonora River basin. The southern part of this watershed contains subtropical shrub, which also responds very rapidly to the monsoon rains, and a site (STS) was selected near Rayón, Sonora. The last site in Sonora was chosen in a desert shrub area some 60 km south of Hermosillo as part of an

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

; Vaisaila; Salt River Project), government laboratories and centers (NCEP, NWS/ Weather Forecasting Offices, NCAR/Atmospheric Technology Division, NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory/Aeronomy Laboratory), universities (The University of Arizona’s Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University’s Department of Atmospheric Science), and groups (science directors, forecasters, forecaster assistants, monitoring directors, and field observers) that were instrumental to the success of the

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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

–2004. The VIC model is forced with observed precipitation, and the model-simulated runoff plausibly matches observations for 14 test river basins distributed across Mexico. Therefore, evapotranspiration, averaged appropriately, is arguably realistically reproduced as well. On this basis, and given the physically based model parameterizations in VIC for S m and energy fluxes, we argue that the other surface flux and state variables (such as S m ) in the dataset should be reasonably well represented as

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Michelle Hallack-Alegria and David W. Watkins Jr.

in the Yaqui River basin were obtained from the National Commission of Water (CNA) in Sonora. Data availability for the stations in Sonora varies, with most of the data being available from 1960 to 1995. In Arizona, data were acquired for 19 stations from the Western Regional Climate Center. These records were selected based on the weather station’s location, precipitation patterns, and the period of record, and the 19 sites selected were those deemed to have rainfall patterns similar to the

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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

and its relation to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 929 – 945 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , D. A. Mayer , and L. Cid-Serrano , 1999 : How ubiquitous is the dipole relationship in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures? J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 7841 – 7848 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U

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John E. Janowiak, Valery J. Dagostaro, Vernon E. Kousky, and Robert J. Joyce

considerably more coarse than the native model spatial resolutions. 3. The distribution of rainfall amounts among RMORPH, Eta, and GFS The 35-day mean difference field in rainfall between the models and validation data is shown in Fig. 2a . The GFS is generally wetter than RMORPH (more positive differences) compared to the Eta, particularly over much of the East Coast, the Ohio River valley, Texas, and the Dakotas. Both models exhibit large negative differences, that is, drier than RMORPH over the Pacific

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