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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

scenarios, involving resealing of the ice dam, partial refilling of the lake, and a second flood pulse, can be defended but will not be explored here. Immediately before the flood onset, the outflow of water from Lake Agassiz was controlled by a bedrock spillway that fixed the lake level at around 230 m MSL ( Clarke et al. 2004 ) and directed the overflow to the St. Lawrence River via the Kinojévis and Ottawa Rivers ( Fig. 3 ), near the present border of Ontario and Quebec. This is the so

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A. E. Viau and K. Gajewski

the position of tree limit in Labrador. Ecol. Monogr. , 55 , 241 – 258 . Leitner , R. , and K. Gajewski , 2004 : Modern and Holocene stomate records of tree-line variations in northwestern Quebec. Can. J. Bot. , 82 , 726 – 734 . MacDonald , G. M. , 1983 : Holocene vegetation history of the upper Natla River area, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arct. Alp. Res. , 15 , 169 – 180 . MacDonald , G. M. , 1987a : Postglacial development of the subalpine-boreal transition forest of

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

, meltwater generated by the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet was being routed from glacial Lake Agassiz through the Mississippi River system into the Gulf of Mexico. At the onset of the YD, however, this route to the sea was abandoned when continental drainage is hypothesized to have switched to the east through the St. Lawrence River system to the Atlantic. Given the inability to identify the spillway that the eastward flow of meltwater would have occupied ( Lowell et al. 2005 ), it has been

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Atlantic basin, a coherent basin-wide pattern of variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been identified with a period of 60–80 yr ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ). With an amplitude on the order of ½°C, this Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) has been linked to changes in North American rainfall and river flow, to Sahel drought, to ENSO intensity, to the modulation of hurricanes, and to North Pacific SST variability ( Rowell et al. 1995

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