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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

radiative and turbulent fluxes, a weighted average was applied to the data collected from the limited number of surface flux sites. The weights used in computing the area mean of the surface radiative fluxes were based on the land and ocean fraction within the analysis domain, 0.57 and 0.43, respectively. For the sensible and latent heat fluxes, the weights for data collected at each site (i.e., Darwin Harbour, Fogg Dam, Howard Springs, Daly River, and the ship) were guided by the frequencies of the

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

translation of percent variance to actual variance yields a relatively small actual interannual variability of rainfall (∼24 mm out of the mean 850-mm rainfall for India) associated with ENSO (e.g., Webster et al. 1998 ; Kumar et al. 1999 ). Moreover, predictions of interannual monsoon rainfall and river discharge using just ENSO as a predictand have limited skill (e.g., Torrence and Webster 1999 ; Clark et al. 2000 ; Jian et al. 2009 ). In summary, not all monsoon rainfall variability can be

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

16j ) and negative LH near the equator ( Fig. 16h ). Luo and Yanai (1984) examined Q1 and Q2 around Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal, and over the South China plain around the Yangzi River basin, using level II-b data from the first Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment for early summer. In the lower troposphere, large positive LH was suggested by larger positive Q1 and Q2 over the Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal area, whereas weaker positive LH was suggested by small Q1 and

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