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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

transpiration from plants, evaporation from soils, and sublimation from snow. 2.4. Model application and analysis Simulated water fluxes of runoff and ET were evaluated and compared with observed data where available. We use discharge data from the downstream site (Pilot Station) on the Yukon River for comparison with the simulated runoff across the Yukon basin. Observed ET data are drawn from two sites across Alaska ( Table 3 ). We compare PWBM simulated summer total [June–August (JJA)] ET at the grid cell

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

region during the last two decades of the twentieth century. The boundaries of the western Arctic in this study completely encompass the drainage basin of the Yukon River, and the region includes most of Alaska and adjacent areas in northwestern Canada. The region includes two long-term ecological research (LTER) sites: one that is focused on tundra ecosystems (Toolik Lake LTER; Hobbie et al. 1994 ) and another that is focused on boreal forest ecosystems (Bonanza Creek LTER; Chapin et al. 2006

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T. Scott Rupp, Xi Chen, Mark Olson, and A. David McGuire

. ( Clein et al. 2006 ). We evaluate both simulated and prescribed fire ignition and spread to assess vegetation response differences. We discuss the implications of our modeling results for efforts to couple models of fire dynamics with the output of climate system models. 2. Methods 2.1. Study area Our simulation domain was defined as the entire Yukon River drainage basin and the surrounding regions (3 937 500 km 2 total area; 692 715 km 2 forested area). The domain includes all of Alaska (except

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Ute C. Herzfeld, Sheldon Drobot, Wanli Wu, Charles Fowler, and James Maslanik

between Sand Point and Chiguik; and 55°N passes between Ketchikan (N), Dawson Creek (N), Prince Rupert (S), and Prince George (S), containing most of southeastern Alaska in the WALE area. Parts of the Yukon and Northwest Territories of British Columbia and Alberta constitute the eastern half of the study area. The study area includes parts of the lower Yukon and Kuskokwim drainages in the west, the Kilbuck Mountains (1000–1500 m), the Kaiyuh Mountains, the Nowitna River, the Kantishna, Tanana, and

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

seasonal carbon cycle in high latitudes to climate anomalies. J. Geophys. Res. 105 : 22897 – 22908 . Wu , W. , A. H. Lynch , and A. Rivers . 2005 . Estimating the uncertainty in a regional climate model related to initial and lateral boundary conditions. J. Climate 18 : 917 – 933 . Xie , P. and P. Arkin . 1998 . Global monthly precipitation estimates from satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation. J. Climate 11 : 134 – 164 . Figure 1. Annual mean sea level pressure

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