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Xingwen Jiang, Jianchuan Shu, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Huang, and Qing Wu

1. Introduction Southwest China (SWC), characterized by complex topography, receives considerable rainfall during summer. It contains the headwaters of many rivers, including the Yangtze, Langcang, and Nujiang, which provide as much as 46% of China’s available water resources. Because of large interannual variability of summer rainfall over SWC, droughts and floods hit SWC frequently, especially over the last decade, resulting in severe economic losses ( Wang et al. 2015a ). It is, therefore

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

input are important to the salinity balance in the Indian Ocean, with a 14-Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) transport of 33.6‰ salinity input required for the freshwater balance of the Indian Ocean ( Piola and Gordon 1984 ). Input from river inflow and the ITF are essential to reproduce the observed salinity distribution in the Indian Ocean as shown by model experiments ( Han and McCreary 2001 ). The ITF tends to lower the Indian Ocean salinities and most of the ITF waters eventually flow out of the

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

, 934 – 947 , . 10.1002/qj.809 Matthews , A. J. , G. Pickup , S. C. Peatman , P. Clews , and J. Martin , 2013 : The effect of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on station rainfall and river level in the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 10 926 – 10 935 , . 10.1002/jgrd.50865 Neale , R. , and J. Slingo , 2003 : The maritime continent and its role in the global climate: A GCM

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

). Processes controlling SST and air–sea interaction in the MC: The observed higher SST in the MC region for MJO-C cannot be explained by larger energy flux into the ocean. Upper-ocean processes are likely to be involved. Mixing under influences of bathymetry, tides, river runoff, and the Indonesian Throughflow is unique to the MC in comparison to the open oceans. For example, as discussed in Sprintall et al. (2014) and Koch-Larrouy et al. (2015) , tidal mixing can modify the SST of the MC by 0.5°C

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