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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

et al. 2017 ; Seelanki et al. 2018 ). Rainfall events directly freshen the surface layer of the BoB and indirectly contribute to the outflow from several major river systems that discharge into the BoB, thus favoring differential oceanic responses to ISOs in the northern, central, and southern BoB ( Schott et al. 2009 ). Salinity is further modulated by the southwest monsoon current advecting high salinity waters from the Arabian Sea into the BoB on intraseasonal time scales and by mesoscale

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

( Frank and Husain 1971 ; Webster 2008 ). Communities living around the large river deltas of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar are particularly vulnerable to storm surge and flooding from cyclones (e.g., De et al. 2005 ; Raghavan and Rajesh 2003 ; Adler 2005 ; Lin et al. 2009 ). The BoB experiences an average of three to four tropical cyclones per year; there are two cyclone seasons, April–June and late September–December (premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons). The temperature–salinity structure of

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

salinity ( Roemmich and Gilson 2009 ). Similar results were obtained using the north Indian Ocean Atlas of Chatterjee et al. (2012) . The months of March and April are separated to emphasize the basin-wide weak mean wind stress and weak near-inertial input. Large outflows from the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Irrawaddy Rivers, and substantial precipitation make the Bay a strongly salinity-stratified basin in its near-surface depths particularly toward the north. The annual river discharge peaks toward the

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2387:FMCIAC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2387:FMCIAC>2.0.CO;2 Matthews , A. J. , G. Pickup , S. C. Peatman , P. Clews , and J. Martin , 2013 : The effect of the Madden-Julian oscillation on station rainfall and river level in the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea . J. Geophys. Res. , 118 , 10 926 – 10 935 , https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50865 . 10.1002/jgrd.50865 Meyers , M. P. , R. L. Walko , J. Y. Harrington , and W. R. Cotton , 1997 : New RAMS cloud microphysics

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

generated by massive seasonal freshwater fluxes, mainly from major rivers in the north, and intense precipitation during the southwest monsoon. The shallow freshwater cap affects the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST; Jaeger and Mahadevan 2018 ) and the upper-ocean’s heat content ( Shroyer et al. 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016 ), both of which can alter the air–sea fluxes and, hence, affect the monsoon dynamics. The Air–Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI; Lucas et al. 2014

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