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John R. Gyakum

Abstract

Fred Sanders' teaching and research contributions in the area of quasigeostrophic theory are highlighted in this paper. The application of these contributions is made to the topic of extreme cold-season precipitation events in the Saint Lawrence valley in the northeastern United States and southern Quebec.

This research focuses on analyses of Saint Lawrence valley heavy precipitation events. Synoptic- and planetary-scale circulation anomaly precursors are typically identified several days prior to these events. These precursors include transient upper-level troughs, strong moisture transports into the region, and anomalously large precipitable water amounts. The physical insight of Fred Sanders' work is used in the analysis of these composite results. Further details of this insight are provided in analyses of one case of heavy precipitation.

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

1. Introduction: From engineering to hydrologic science The development of ancient civilizations along the Nile, Tigris–Euphrates, Indus, and Huang-Ho Rivers is not an accident—proximity to water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture, and navigation enriched their livelihoods. Soon after these civilizations were established, they began to measure and manage water, including constructing flood control dams, collecting stream gauge information, and building irrigation canals ( Noaman and El Quosy

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Ronald B. Smith

may be flowing down a river within a few hours of “landing” on the mountain surface. In contrast, precipitation falling as snow will be stored on the ground surface for several days, and possibly months or years. It may accumulate into glaciers. Fallen snow will not enter the soil and rivers until warm air arrives and the snow melts. e. Natural layers in the atmosphere The real atmosphere generally has a complex temperature profile T ( z ) with height, unlike (20-6) . Of particular importance is

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

updraft mass flux in a large population of small marine cumulus clouds provided new information about cumulus dynamics ( Ghate et al. 2011 ). d. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment The Indian monsoon was the lifeblood of India because it supplied rain for agriculture and snowfall to the Himalayas that eventually melted into freshwater that supplied many of India’s rivers. There were known and hypothesized links between the Indian monsoon and other important atmospheric circulations. And economic

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

disciplines ( Vörösmarty et al. 2002 ). Among the many accomplishments of CHAMP was a much better understanding of the stocks and fluxes that constitute of Arctic hydrologic cycle, the freshwater budget of the Arctic Ocean, processes leading to variability and change in river discharge, and nutrient transports. d. BOREAS (1990s–2000s) The Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was a large-scale international interdisciplinary experiment in the boreal forests of central Canada. While most large field

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

. In the summer months, the strong TP heating excites a huge cyclonic deviation circulation over East Asia, and the strong pumping of the TP-SHAP makes the surrounding flows converge into the TP area. Therefore, the summer pattern of the deviation stream field at 850 hPa resembles a huge cyclonic spiral and the TP-SHAP looks like a spiral pump. In fact, the summer TP is an important genesis location of vortices that can propagate eastward and result in torrential rain along the Yangtze River. Fig

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

structures with the help of radar and three-dimensional airflow observations. These transport structures, refinements of the original Norwegian polar-front model as summarized by Palmén and Newton (1969) , were noted in satellite images: filaments of water vapor transport later labeled as “atmospheric rivers” ( Newell et al. 1992 ). A related airflow-based conceptual model explaining production of very high convective instability from an elevated mixed-layer capping cooler moist air was described by

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

, recirculating systems, and even dry cooling towers ( Averyt et al. 2011 ; Cooley et al. 2011 ; Fisher and Ackerman 2011 ; Kenney and Wilkinson 2011 ). In addition, much of the West’s hydropower generation occurs at run-of-the-river facilities, or at dams with limited storage capacity, and thus is also sensitive to droughts and future changes in seasonal flow patterns ( Gleick 2015 ). Fig . 24-7. Total water withdrawals showing category of use by state from west to east for 2010 [from Maupin et al. (2014

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

stations have experienced changes over the past 20 years, including decommissioning at the ARM boundary facilities. Solar and infrared radiation station (SIRS) providing continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. National Weather Service WSR-88D NEXRAD radar and rain gauge providing hourly surface precipitation data to the Arkansas-Red basin River Forecast Center (ABRFC). Fig . 24-1. Locations of

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

interplay of advection, large-scale subsidence, and shear-generated turbulence. Fig . 23-3. Simulated potential temperature (°C) and winds at 1400 LST for RAMS simulations using (top) both realistic topography and vegetation and (bottom) vegetation only. Gray indicates irrigated farmland, white indicates native shrub steppe, and black indicates the Columbia River. [Courtesy of Zhong and Doran (1995) .] The deployment of ARM instruments at the SGP site, as well as advances in regional-scale land surface

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