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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

vertically integrated continuity equation in the Boussinesq approximation reads where U and V are vertically integrated zonal and meridional flows, respectively. The forcing term Q ζ ( x , y ) represents the surface freshwater flux due to precipitation ( P ), evaporation ( E ), and river runoff ( R ). River discharge is calculated from the hydrological discharge model from Hagemann and Dümenil (1998) , with the limitation that the melting of land ice is not considered, effectively excluding

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

has a free surface and conserves mass rather than volume. The usefulness of the model is further improved by adding the steric effects explicitly to the original coding. The temporal evolution of the sea surface height ζ is determined as where ζ represents the sea level, H is the depth, P is precipitation, E is evaporation, R is river runoff, T is the temperature, S is salinity, p is the pressure, α = 1/ ρ is the specific volume, and v is the horizontal velocity. This offers

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

the climatological mean SSS of Boyer and Levitus (1998) , respectively. SSS is relaxed with a time scale of 60 days, whereas SST is relaxed to observed values using a spatially varying time scale, typically between 1 and 2 months, based on the method of Barnier et al. (1995) . Freshwater fluxes (evaporation, precipitation, river runoff) are implemented as a virtual salt flux in which the surface salinity is modified in accordance with the freshwater forcing as opposed to changing the model

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