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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

-ice extent is negatively correlated with the Amur River discharge on interannual time scales, mainly through the atmospheric circulation change in summer, the season when the discharge peaks ( Ogi et al. 2001 ). This indicates that the Okhotsk sea ice could also be related to the atmospheric conditions in the preceding summer. On the other hand, onset of sea-ice formation is well predicted by local turbulent heat fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions in the preceding autumn ( Ohshima et al. 2006

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

. D. Sardeshmukh , 2012 : Relative contributions of synoptic and low-frequency eddies to time-mean atmospheric moisture transport, including the role of atmospheric rivers . J. Climate , 25 , 7341 – 7361 . Nonaka , M. , H. Nakamura , Y. Tanimoto , T. Kagimoto , and H. Sasaki , 2006 : Decadal variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension simulated in an eddy-resolving OGCM . J. Climate , 19 , 1970 – 1989 . Nonaka , M. , H. Nakamura , Y. Tanimoto , T. Kagimoto

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

–NCAR Reanalysis-2 data from the period 1979–2003 ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). Surface heat fluxes are calculated by the bulk formulae, and freshwater fluxes are estimated from evaporation minus precipitation and river runoff. Sea surface salinity (SSS) is restored with an 8-day damping time scale to avoid the problem of SSS drifting using climatological monthly-mean data. Temperature and salinity are restored for the southern boundary using climatological monthly-mean data. To evaluate SSS drifting, the

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

synoptic and low-frequency eddies to time-mean atmospheric moisture transport, including the role of atmospheric rivers . J. Climate , 25 , 7341 – 7361 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00665.1 . Nieman , S. J. , 1990 : A diagnosis of non-quasigeostrophic vertical motion for a model-simulated rapidly intensifying marine extratropical cyclone. M.S. thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 181 pp . Nonaka , M. , and S.-P. Xie , 2003 : Covariations of SST and wind over the

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