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Taikan Oki and Y. C. Sud

realistically simulated. The river runoff generated in the real world must be routed through a natural network of water flow paths, such as creeks, brooks, tributaries, and major river channels. These paths are naturally created by soil erosion and are orographically modulated and temporally carved. A few exceptions represent scenarios either where humans have created new paths for water-use needs or where small passages have naturally broadened to provide cross-basin flows. In this way, these intricate

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

1. Introduction Large rivers integrate the constituents and characteristics of the landscape through which they flow. Consequently, river discharge represents a valuable historical record of hydrologic patterns over complex drainage basins, and therefore has a particularly important role to play in understanding climatic and anthropogenic effects on terrestrial ecosystems at continental and global scales ( Vörösmarty and Sahagian, 2000 ). River flow has important implications for physics in the

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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, Gregory T. Pederson, Connie A. Woodhouse, and Stephanie McAfee

1. Introduction The Colorado River basin ( Figure 1 ) extends across parts of seven states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming) and is one of the most important water resources in the western United States and Mexico ( U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 2012 ). The upper Colorado River basin (UCRB)—that portion of the Colorado River basin upstream of the stream gauge at Lees Ferry—accounts for about 90% of the streamflow of the entire Colorado River basin ( Jacobs 2011

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Maria de Fátima F. L. Rasera, Maria Victoria R. Ballester, Alex V. Krusche, Cleber Salimon, Letícia A. Montebelo, Simone R. Alin, Reynaldo L. Victoria, and Jeffrey E. Richey

Introduction Rivers receive and process carbon from their watersheds, reflecting both natural and anthropogenic processes in the drainage basins. While in transit, the composition and concentration of various carbon fractions (organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved) are modified by metabolic processes within the river channel, and part of the inorganic carbon may be outgassed to the atmosphere as CO 2 . Recent studies in temperate ecosystems indicate that the magnitude of CO 2

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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory T. Pederson, Stephanie A. McAfee, Stephen Gray, and Adam Csank

1. Introduction The Colorado River basin (CRB) encompasses approximately 246 000 km 2 and includes parts of seven states in the western United States (i.e., Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming) and northern Mexico ( U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 2012 ). The CRB is one of the most important water supplies in the western United States and provides water for approximately 40 million people, hydropower generation, and over 16 000 km 2 of agriculture ( Evenson et al

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Shithi Kamal-Heikman, Louis A. Derry, Jery R. Stedinger, and Christopher C. Duncan

1. Introduction The roles and interactions of climate factors in causing flooding in the lower Brahmaputra basin are not well understood. Improved predictions of monsoon flooding could reduce loss of life and economic damage. For example, the 1998 Brahmaputra–Ganges–Meghna flood inundated 69% of Bangladesh ( Mirza 2003 ), displacing over 30 million persons and causing over 1000 deaths ( DMB 1998 ). Of the three major rivers that contribute to flooding in Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra is the

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D. W. Stahle, R. D. Griffin, D. M. Meko, M. D. Therrell, J. R. Edmondson, M. K. Cleaveland, L. N. Stahle, D. J. Burnette, J. T. Abatzoglou, K. T. Redmond, M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan

reconstruction of winter precipitation ( Meko et al. 2011 ), the soil moisture balance ( Cook et al. 2007 ), Sacramento River streamflow ( Meko et al. 2001 ), and San Francisco Bay salinity ( Stahle et al. 2001 ; Stahle et al. 2011 ). Figure 7. The tree-ring chronologies from Mt. Diablo, Rock Springs, and Los Lobos (white dots) were correlated with the seasonal precipitation totals accumulated from September through May at each grid point in the PRISM precipitation dataset from 1951 to 2003 ( Daly et al

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Roland J. Viger, Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, John W. Jones, and Gary R. Buell

Flint River basin, Georgia, was originally modeled as part of the Upper Flint River Science Thrust of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), part of a federally funded program to address key national science priorities, including landslide and debris flows, fire science, integrated landscape monitoring, and water availability. The purpose of the Upper Flint River Science Thrust is to “advance the science needed to specify the hydrologic conditions necessary to support flowing-water ecosystems. This

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

European rivers is projected to decrease with increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation. In particular, some river basins in the Mediterranean regions may see decreases of 10% or more below today's levels by 2030. The objective of this study is to qualitatively investigate the effects of predicted short-term climate change scenarios on hydropower potential of the Alcantara River basin, located in the eastern part of Sicily, Italy. The interest in this case study is twofold: on the one hand

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Yuan Zhang and George F. Hepner

explains the application of MARS models to different phenological regions (phenoregions, phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters) in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) for discussion. Individual MARS models are tuned for specific phenoregions. MARS models are validated using cross validation and field validation techniques. The results indicate that the MARS models yield accurate predictions under different physical settings. 2. Methodology In this section, the study area of the UCRB

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