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Zaizhong Ma, Ying-Hwa Kuo, F. Martin Ralph, Paul J. Neiman, Gary A. Wick, Ellen Sukovich, and Bin Wang

1. Introduction Water vapor is one of the most important variables of earth’s atmosphere. Its distribution and transport play a crucial role in weather and climate. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow (<~500 km wide) and long (>~2000 km) corridors of intense water vapor transport situated on the warm side of polar cold fronts. ARs over the eastern North Pacific Ocean often generate heavy orographic precipitation upon landfall, causing flooding events over the West Coast of the United States

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

1. Introduction The Caribbean Sea is a frequent pathway for tropical cyclones (TCs); these storms encounter several different ocean regimes such as the Amazon–Orinoco River plume, the Caribbean Current, the Yucatan Current, and large warm-core eddies (WCEs) that reside in the basin. During the late summer months of the Atlantic hurricane season, sea surface temperature (SST) remains fairly homogeneous throughout the basin ( Fig. 1 ). Yet, ocean heat content relative to the 26°C isotherm [OHC

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storm-centre.P R E C I P I T A T I ON'.The moiithly chart of precipitation shows that there has been a very great excess inthe South Atlantic States, and a decided excess in the Western Gulf States and the Ohiovalley. In compiling this chart use has been made of the reports of voluntary observers,in nddit.ion to those of the Signal Corps.On the 2lst aiid 22d, i l t Nashville, there fell 5;96 inches in.36 hours,' being the heaviestrainfall ever recorded there.R I V E R S ' ."1The itlissouri river nt

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fluence manifests, so early in the spring, its predominance. At Mount, Washington, windswere reported on the 23d, of velocity as high as 130 miles an hour atid continuing nearthat enorinoiis force for twenty-four hours.R I V E R S ,The condition of the rivers wilt be found in one of the tables on Chart No. 2. TheRed river, it ,will be seen, rose a t Shreveport to its highest as the month closed. Soalso the Missouri at Leavenworth. The Cumberland was very high on the 25th, butafterward fell

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There has been a deficiency in New England varying from 1.79 to 4.00 itiches, inthe Middle Stittcs, except southern Virginia, 0.44 to 3.26 inches, from northern portionsof Georgia a.nd South Carolina to the Ohio valley 0.35 to 2.03 inches, from northeastern&amp;sas to southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois 1.67 to 3.90 inches, over northwest-ern Ohio and southeilstcrll Michigan 0.20 to 1.23 inches, and over western Minnesota0.98 inch.R I V E R S .The Red river rose steadily a t Shreveport

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largely in escess af' the average, and wouldtappear to indicate n bountiful 1i:trvest for 1574.R I V E R 8 ,Freshets and floods have been reported in tlie rivers draining the Apaltichian Chain,arid in tliose of' New Eiiglarid aiid the Middle States during the Sth, 9th and 10th daysof the month. The Ohio river lias been ~i i u s ~a l l y high at Cincinnati and .Louisville, buthas been open during the entire inon th. FluctuiLtioIls, without any decided high waters,haye occurred in the Mississippi and

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waters at the p i h i p a l river stations. It will be Seen that the rivers have generally rmged lower thanduring Septetnbcr, and a t Some stations have been reported as lower than usual a t thisseason 01' the year.E A R L Y F R O S T S ,The first frosts of the season were reported a t the following stations:October 1. Lexington, slight; Wytheville, light; Oswego, light. 6 . Toledo, heavy;Detroit, heavy; St. Paul, severe ; Leavenworth, heavy. 7. St. Louis, heavy ; Cincinnati,heavy ; Lexington, heavy

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FREDERICK H. BRANDENBURG

general forecasts for the specific problems in his own region. During the past winter (December, 1918, to March, 1919, inclusive) the State forecasts were amplified a t the Salt Lake City ofice of the Bureau for the Bear River revion, and the coiiditions previiiling over the northwestern states were given to the officinls of the company by telephone each niorning for theiI consideration in the water regulation problem.THE COLORADO RIVER.By FREDERICK H. BRANDENBURG, District Forecaster.[Dated: Weather

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;h,were over twenty feet above low-water.The lowest fall of the Ohio \V;LS on the l2th, when at Cincinnati it was S feet;that of the hfississippi OIL the 19t,h, a t Cairo, G fcet G inches ; that of tlic Red river onthe 20tl1, at Shrcveport, (i feet 3 inches.The Missouri reached its highest between the 20th arid 27th.llie display of nuroras in thc Lake region does not seein to have been as frequc1i1,or ns brilliant as usual ; nor have the Novembcr cyclonic disturbaims beer1 as numerous or :is niarlrcd as

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Herbert Riehl, Mohamed El-Bakry, and José Meitín

1546 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 107Nile River Discharge HERBERT RI-HLNational Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, CO 80307 MOHAMED EL-BAKRYThe Meteorological Authority of Egypt. Cairo, Egypt ]OSf~ MEITINNational Center for Atmospheric Research, ~ Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 12 February 1979, in final form 3 July 1979

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