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Weifeng G. Zhang, John L. Wilkin, and Oscar M. E. Schofield

coastal ocean biogeochemical processes. Focusing on time scales associated with the spreading of river source waters across the inner shelf, this paper applies CART to the circulation of the Hudson River discharge in the New York Bight (NYB). The NYB is adjacent to a wide, shallow continental shelf; on this coast, wind, large-scale shelf-wide circulation, and variable bathymetry all play roles in driving local circulation and dispersing the Hudson River plume ( Castelao et al. 2008 ; Chant et al

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Roy Barkan, James C. McWilliams, Alexander F. Shchepetkin, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Lionel Renault, Annalisa Bracco, and Jun Choi

, Luo et al. (2016 , hereinafter L16 ) suggested that the primary drivers of submesoscales in the De Soto Canyon region are the Loop Current eddies and the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River system (hereinafter rivers). They further argued that in winter when the mixed layer is deepest, submesoscales are generated primarily by frontogenesis and mixed layer instabilities, whereas during summer they are weaker than in winter and are associated with frontogenesis fueled by the horizontal density gradients

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Zhaoyun Chen, Yuwu Jiang, Jia Wang, and Wenping Gong

, 2013 ). Hu and Wang (2016) reviewed the upwelling studies conducted off China’s coasts, and pointed out that upwelling is active in the northern South China Sea, in the Taiwan Strait, off the northeastern Taiwan and Zhejiang coasts, off the Yangtze River Estuary, and sometimes in the northern Bohai Strait. Coastal upwelling can be triggered by winds, tides, background currents, and eddies and is influenced by stratification. Upwelling-favorable wind with a duration of several days commonly causes

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Ryan M. McCabe, Parker MacCready, and Barbara M. Hickey

1. Introduction River plumes have received much interest in recent literature. Insight into how the buoyancy, momentum, chemical constituents (nutrients and pollutants), and sediment inputs provided by rivers affect the coastal ocean is vitally important for further understanding of regional productivity and ecosystem health. The most distinguishing property of a river plume is its buoyancy. Because of this buoyancy, any oceanic nutrients mixed into the plume may become trapped near the surface

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David K. Ralston, W. Rockwell Geyer, and James A. Lerczak

1. Introduction Understanding the structure and variability of the salinity distribution in an estuary is critical to many ecological and engineering management decisions. The salinity distribution is governed by a balance between downstream advection of salt by river flow and upstream transport of salt by dispersive processes. These up-estuary fluxes can be divided into a subtidal component due to residual velocity and salinity and an oscillatory tidal component associated with correlations in

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Byoung-Ju Choi and John L. Wilkin

1. Introduction Observations and numerical simulations have shown that local wind forcing significantly affects the dispersal of a river plume as it enters the coastal ocean ( Pullen and Allen 2000 ; Fong and Geyer 2001 ; García Berdeal et al. 2002 ; Janzen and Wong 2002 ; Whitney and Garvine 2006 ). This is particularly true of surface-advected plumes where the river outflow forms a thin layer riding on more dense shelf water, and consequently has diminished interaction with the bathymetry

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James A. Lerczak, W. Rockwell Geyer, and David K. Ralston

1. Introduction Tidally averaged, physical conditions of an estuary—including the length of the salinity intrusion, the strength of stratification, and the strength and structure of the subtidal estuarine exchange circulation—are set by competing external forcing mechanisms. In many partially mixed estuaries, the dominant forcing mechanisms are buoyancy forcing by river discharge Q f and stirring and mixing due to tidal currents. For steady discharge and tidal amplitude, estuary length

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Weifeng G. Zhang, John L. Wilkin, and Robert J. Chant

1. Introduction Freshwater discharged into the coastal ocean from rivers and runoff is often observed to be incorporated into a narrow coastal current that is typically a few internal Rossby radii wide and that rapidly transports freshwater downshelf, which appears similar to the classical model of buoyant outflow onto coastal oceans ( Garvine 1999 ). However, more recent theoretical, modeling, and laboratory studies ( Avicola and Huq 2003a ; Fong and Geyer 2002 ; Nof and Pichevin 2001

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Clément Vic, Henrick Berger, Anne-Marie Tréguier, and Xavier Couvelard

1. Introduction The outflow of the Congo River is the second largest in the world with a mean rate of flow of about 40 000 m 3 s −1 ( Dai and Trenberth 2002 ). As such, it is a major contributor to the mean state and the variability of the surface salinity in the Gulf of Guinea ( Signorini et al. 1999 ), and it has been recently shown that it may have a strong impact on climate variability in the region ( Materia et al. 2012 ). Moreover, rivers are important sources of carbon in the ocean

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Shin’ichiro Kako, Tomofumi Nakagawa, Katsumi Takayama, Naoki Hirose, and Atsuhiko Isobe

1. Introduction It is well known that the Changjiang River (or Yangtze River) is the major source of freshwater entering the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS; e.g., Chang and Isobe 2003 ). Although many rivers discharge into the YECS, the Changjiang River discharge (CRD) accounts for 90% of the total (e.g., Shen et al. 1998 ; Chang and Isobe 2003 ; see Fig. 1 ). Figure 2 shows the annual variation of the CRD, as reported by Chang and Isobe (2003) , which demonstrates that the CRD has a

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