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John P. Monteverdi, Roger Edwards, and Gregory J. Stumpf

1. Introduction At 2332 UTC (1632 PDT) 7 July 2004, a backpacker, Scott Newton, hiking near Rockwell Pass in Sequoia National Park (west of Mount Williamson in the southern Sierra Nevada) observed cloud-base rotation and an associated funnel cloud ( Fig. 1 ). The parent thunderstorm ( Fig. 2 ) had formed west of Rockwell Pass over the upper sections of the steeply walled Kern River Canyon ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). Mr. Newton was hiking southward toward the Wrights Lake basin and was nearing the pass

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arm of fog also extends westward along theThe JBSA 3 photomosaic in figure 1 show5 many of the lower Sacrrtmento River and covers most of the Sanvalleys of the western United States filled with fog. Francisco Bay area.fog layer 's in height and the mento Valley to the southern end of the Sari JoaquiniFIGURE 1.-ESSA 3 photomosaic. Passes 984-985, 1940-2134 GMT, December 19,1966.j

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MATTHIAS ECKARDT and FRANCES C. PARMENTER

darkvegatation-covered area along the river to the south.The predominantly snow-covered Himalaya Mountainsappear in the southeastern portion of the picture. Incontrast to the high mountains are the lakes, Issyk-Kulat (B) and Balkhash at (C).Figure 2 centered over Scotland depicts the British Isles,northern Germany, Denmark, and southern Scandinavia.The stratiform clouds over Scotland are associated withan upper level cold Lorn. The absence of a frontal bandor other cloudiness makes this a good example of a

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isbelieved to be cirrus, perhaps associated with a jetstream.The eastern and western horizons are separated by morethan 70" of longitude. Along 27" N., the Persian Gulfis visible near the eastern horizon, and a portion of theWest African coast appears near the western horizon.Other landmarks include the Red Sea, the Nile River,and much of the southern Mediterranean coastline.Many topographic features are visible in North Africa.The dark spot near 27" N., 17" E. is an elevated regionof basalt-the so

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

-eat,her cumulus over the Lakes the heatsomces are removed and the clouds quickly decay throughentrainment leaving the Lakes cloud free. The clear area(G, H) immediately to the east and south of Lake Michiganis t,he result of cool air being blown off the water. As theair is heated from below, t.he cloud cycle is resumedfarther inland.Rivers affect cloud distribution in the same way but ontt much smaller scale.Also of interest is the distinct line of cumulus cloudsnorth and west of H (fig. 1). At this time

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TERRY R. SCHOENI

PICTURE OF THE MONTHAutumn Snow Storms in the PlainsTERRY R. SCHOENI4atellite Field Services Station, National EnvironmentalSatellite Service, NOAA, Kansas City, Mo.River Forecast Centers (RFC's) and Weather ServiceForecast Offices (WSFO's) in the Great Plains Statesrequire more detailed snow cover data than can beobtained from standard reporting stations. Early in theseason, the RFC acquires initial snowfall reports fromtheir river-rainfall network but receives little subsequentdata between

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ARTHUR H. SMITH

resolution radiometer (VHRR) image, Feb. 10, 1973, 1330 QMT-654 1 Vol. 101, No. 8 1 Monthly Weather Rsviewbrighter in the central portion of the overall snow area The northeast-southwest cloud lines over Lake Ontariofrom southwestern Georgia, through central South are oriented nearly parallel to a northeasterly, low-levelCarolina and eastern North Carolina. Lakes, rivers, and wind flow over the lake. Some snow showers were occurringpine forests appear black within the snow field. to the lee of Lake

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RALPH K. ANDERSON

can be attributed to the forests of ShenandoahNational Park and state parks to the north. Immediatelyto the west is a broad, lighter band that marks the GreatValley of Virginia and Pennsylvania. It runs along theeastern edge of the Valley and Ridge Province of Appa-lachia and contains several different river valleys. Thelight appearance of this band suggests that the area isprimarily open farmland.A distinctive darker area (e), with a fingered appearanceto its northern edge, appears in north

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Brandon J. Vogt and Stephen J. Hodanish

state in the United States. Elevations range from 1010 m (3315 ft) in the northeast section of the state where the Arikaree River flows into Kansas to 4399 m (14 433 ft) at the summit of centrally located Mount Elbert ( U.S. Geological Survey 2013 ). Stroke densities in the state range from 30 km 2 yr −1 to less than 1 km 2 yr −1 . The greatest stroke densities occur in the higher elevations of the mountains, though these maxima vary from mountain range to mountain range. Areas of high stroke

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

along the north-south Absarokaand Wind River Ranges, and farther east along the BigHorn Mountains. The wind at' the top of the 12,000- and14,000-ft. mountains, indicated by LND, is 40 kt. fromthe west.Another area of wave clouds (S) can be seen along theeastern edge of the frontal cloudiness approaching Wash-ington and Oregon, in the vicinity of Mt. Adams andMt. Hood.The presence of wave clouds in satellite photographsprovides the aviation forecaster with visual informationabout the mesoscale wind

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