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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

) and discussed later in this paper, the localization of damaging winds probably resulted from mesoscale pressure perturbations produced by the Olympics. A Weather Bureau observation at the North Head lighthouse, on the north side of the mouth of the Columbia River, indicated a sustained wind of 98 kt (50 m s −1 ), with an estimated maximum gust of 130 kt (68 m s −1 ) before the anemometer was blown away. 1 Although the coastal bluff seaward of North Head may have accelerated the winds above those

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T. N. Krishnamurti

of Tibet, theYangtze River valley over eastern China and the Assamvalley of northeastern India. These four regions arecharacterized by relative dry weather, moderate convective rain, steady stratiform rain and heavy convective rain respectively. The respective vertical distributions of Q~, and Q2 are shown here. Luo and Yanainoted that over western Tibet, Q2 is much smaller thanQ~ which suggests the absence of deep convection. Theyattribute the strong values of heating over western Tibetto the

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

moves poleward and starts to interact with the midlatitude flow ( Fig. 1a ). This results in the formation of a jet streak ( Fig. 1b ) and a poleward deflection of the jet near the transitioning cyclone in conjunction with the development of a ridge–trough couplet ( Fig. 1b ). At the same time, a region of enhanced moisture flux—a so-called atmospheric river ( Zhu and Newell 1998 )—forms ahead of the downstream trough. The ridge–trough couplet continues to amplify, a new cyclone develops farther

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

( Keighton et al. 2016 ). Orography can also modulate a transitioning TC’s rainfall distribution, as has been seen with systems in the St. Lawrence River valley of Canada ( Milrad et al. 2009 , 2013 ). Here, ageostrophic frontogenesis focused by the local topography, rather than the synoptic-scale pattern, has been found to exert primary control on where the heaviest precipitation occurs with transitioning TCs in this region ( Milrad et al. 2013 ). 5. Structural evolution The potential impacts of winds

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

of the monthly and hourly distributions. b. Collecting tornado reports The most common definition of Europe is used in this article: Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Ural Mountains, Caucasus Mountains, Ural River, and Caspian Sea to the east ( Fig. 1 ). Based on this definition, there are 50 internationally recognized sovereign European states, of which 44 have their capital city within Europe; 6

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Craig S. Schwartz and Ryan A. Sobash

within a distance of a point more valuable than gridpoint probabilities. Furthermore, NMEPs of 2–5-km hourly maximum updraft helicity had skill when verified against SPC storm reports as in Sobash et al. (2016) , whereas NEPs had no skill (not shown). Finally, forecast applications and end-user requirements should be considered. When forecasts of interest are over broader areas, like river basins, the NMEP may be most appropriate. Conversely, when point forecasts are desired, the NEP may be a better

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

's atmosphere. Tellus , 23 , 404 – 425 . Laird , N. F. , D. A. R. Kristovich , R. M. Rauber , H. T. Ochs , and L. J. Miller , 1995 : The Cape Canaveral sea and river breezes: Kinematic structure and convective initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev , 123 , 2942 – 2956 . Langland , R. H. , and Coauthors , 1999 : The North Pacific Experiment (NORPEX-98): Targeted observations for improved North American weather forecasts. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc , 80 , 1363 – 1384 . Lanicci , J. M. , T. N

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

central Europe was associated with a long-lived precursor RWP ( Fig. 2c ); that low pressure system brought heavy precipitation in parts of Europe resulting in catastrophic flooding of the river Elbe. The forecast of this event was rather poor as little as a few days ahead of time. Each stage of the RWP life cycle may be subject to forecast errors, and it is important to obtain a better understanding of what stages and which processes contribute most strongly to poor forecasts. In particular, the role

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