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Qingfang Jiang, Ming Liu, and James D. Doyle

1. Introduction Owens (dry) Lake is located in Owens Valley, which is a northwest–southeast-oriented quasi-two-dimensional valley between the Sierra Nevada ridge and the Inyo Mountains ( Fig. 1a ) in eastern California. While Owens Valley is nearly two-dimensional, the topography around Owens (dry) Lake is complex and highly three-dimensional with rich multiscale features ( Fig. 1b ). Historically, fed by streams such as the Owens River, Owens (dry) Lake was a perennial salt lake and an

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Shiyuan Zhong, Ju Li, C. David Whiteman, Xindi Bian, and Wenqing Yao

considerably and splits into two valleys. At the southern end of the valley lies the dry Owens Lake bed, which was originally a 285 km 2 saline lake. The lake was reduced to a much smaller brine pool surrounded by a large area of dry, alkaline soils following the diversion of the Owens River water to Los Angeles in an aqueduct project completed in 1913. Situated in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada, the annual rainfall in the region averages about 10–15 cm yr −1 , with most precipitation falling from

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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

-air current overshooting its equilibrium altitude, leaving the vicinity of the downslope flow, and returning to it in a large-scale cross-valley oscillatory current. This process, associated with down-slope dense fluid intrusion into a stratified environment, is termed “springback” motion by Baines (2005) and “stratified flow response” by Mayr and Armi (2010) . Many natural phenomena are attributed to this process such as powder snow avalanches, dense overflows in the ocean, and cold river flow into

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