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Carolyn Kousky

1 shows the total amount (in 2008 dollars) of HA and ONA aid received by zip code in 2008, shaded by quantile. Damages are generally—although not always—higher along the Mississippi River, which borders the state in the east, and where the tornadoes touched down (also shown on Fig. 1 ). More detail on individual grants is discussed in the next two sections. In zip codes that received some amount of HA or ONA aid, the median total amount for the entire zip code was only $17,299. The zip code

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Maria A. F. Silva Dias

. Satyamurti et al. (1999) state that, in spite of the Amazon basin having the largest annual rainfall in the country, the frequency of thunderstorms is surprisingly low. There are tornado events, however, reported close to the northern coast, and along the Amazon River close to the cities of Manaus (3°6′07″S, 60°1′30″W) and Santarem (2°26′35″S, 54°42′30″W). This is a region where intense squall lines are seen ( Cohen et al. 1995 ; Rickenbach 2004 ). Interestingly, in the north region most of the cases

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Jason C. Senkbeil, Meganne S. Rockman, and John B. Mason

Weather Service (NWS) personnel, broadcast meteorologists, emergency managers, and city planners may use this research to make decisions about strategies to target particular groups of residents in warning statements. 2. Background and tornado history of Tuscaloosa County Tuscaloosa, Alabama, was the largest city to be directly impacted by a violent tornado on 27 April 2011. Together with its river companion, Northport, Alabama, the metropolitan population of Tuscaloosa is estimated to be

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

USA . Nat. Hazards , 63 , 1055 – 1081 . Remo, J. W. F. , Larson M. , and Pinter N. , 2012 : Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, middle Mississippi River, USA . Nat. Hazards , 61 , 551 – 575 . Scawthorn, C. , Schneider P. , and Schauer B. , 2006 : Natural hazards—The multihazard approach . Nat. Hazards Rev. , 7 , 39 . Schlossberg, M. , 2003 : GIS, the US Census and neighbourhood scale analysis . Plann. Pract. Res. , 18

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Bimal Kanti Paul and Mitchel Stimers

widely considered linear, like rivers and roads, and thus are represented by a line, usually running southwest to northeast ( Suckling and Ashley 2006 ). Although length is a dominant distinguishing feature, the width of tornado paths also varies, ranging from a few feet to a mile or more. One of the widest tornadoes was the Hallam, Nebraska, event that occurred on 22 May 2004. At one point, the funnel was 2.5 mi (4 km) wide. In the United States, on average, tornadoes are approximately 500 ft (150 m

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