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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

fidelity of the coastal winds and incoming moisture, since they play a controlling role on moist physics. For example, vertically integrated moisture flux [integrated water vapor transport (IVT)] is strongly correlated with U.S. West Coast orographic precipitation ( Neiman et al. 2008 ; Lin et al. 2013 ) and is a key parameter in defining and forecasting atmospheric rivers (e.g., Newell et al. 1992 ; Zhu and Newell 1998 ). Furthermore, IVT forecast errors have been shown to correlate with

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Qian Cao, Thomas H. Painter, William Ryan Currier, Jessica D. Lundquist, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

-mean precipitation showed up to 30% differences as compared with precipitation derived from PRISM for these relatively small basins. In some of the basins, they found that the PRISM-derived precipitation was too low given the regional climate. Another consideration is that most extreme precipitation events in the western United States are orographically enhanced, and many precipitation events are associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) accompanied by strong low-level winds (e.g., Zhu and Newell 1994 ; Ralph

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William Ryan Currier, Theodore Thorson, and Jessica D. Lundquist

, J. V. , and W. L. Godson , 1981 : Atmospheric Thermodynamics. D. Reidel, 259 pp. 10.1007/978-94-009-8509-4 Jankov , I. , J. W. Bao , P. J. Neiman , P. J. Schultz , H. L. Yuan , and A. B. White , 2009 : Evaluation and comparison of microphysical algorithms in ARW-WRF model simulations of atmospheric river events affecting the California coast . J. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 847 – 870 , doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1059.1 . 10.1175/2009JHM1059.1 Judson , A. , and N. Doesken , 2000 : Density of

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