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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

streamflow in these basins. [See Table 1 , Koster et al. (2010) , and Mahanama et al. (2012) for details; like Koster et al. (2010) but unlike Mahanama et al. (2012) , all streamflow generated upstream of a gauge site is considered in a given calculation, not just the amount generated between upstream and downstream gauges in the same river network. Also, three basins considered by Mahanama et al. (2012) are not considered here for reasons outlined in Koster and Mahanama (2012) .] Fig . 1

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Fan Chen, Wade T. Crow, and Dongryeol Ryu

. The SAC model has been used extensively for operational streamflow forecasting within medium-sized (~1000 km 2 ) river basins in the United States ( Burnash et al. 1973 ; Georgakakos 2006 ). Soil moisture accounting in the model is based on the estimation of six interdependent soil water states: upper-zone free water content (UZFWC), upper-zone tension water content (UZTWC), lower-zone tension water content (LZTWC), lower-zone free primary water content (LZFPC), lower-zone free supplemental water

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John D. Hottenstein, Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos, Julio Moguel-Yanes, and M. Susan Moran

). All locations were classified as either mesic or semiarid according to their mean annual precipitation during the study period between 1999 and 2013. That is, sites with ≥ 500 mm were considered mesic (Starkville, Little River, Little Washita, and Pawhuska) and sites with < 500 mm were classified as semiarid (Adams Ranch, Pinenut, Vaira Ranch, Willow Wells, and Walnut Gulch). Additionally, the NRCS Web Soil Survey (WSS) was used to determine the field capacity and soil texture at each site

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Amy McNally, Gregory J. Husak, Molly Brown, Mark Carroll, Chris Funk, Soni Yatheendradas, Kristi Arsenault, Christa Peters-Lidard, and James P. Verdin

Chad in the east and is the wooded grassland transition zone between the Sahara desert in the north and the Guinean woodland to the south ( Fig. 1 ). The main crops grown in the region are rain-fed millet, sorghum, maize, cotton, and groundnuts. Rice is grown along the Senegal and Niger Rivers where natural flooding and large-scale irrigation projects meet this crop’s high water demand ( UNEP 2012 ). More widespread irrigation is also present in Chad ( FEWSNET 2013 ). The topography is mainly flat

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Sujay V. Kumar, Kenneth W. Harrison, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., and Dalia Kirschbaum

: Verification of probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts over the southwest United States during winter 2002/03 by the RSM ensemble system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 279 – 294 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-2858.1 . Zhang, Q. , Xu C.-Y. , and Zhang Z. , 2009 : Observed changes of drought/wetness episodes in the Pearl River basin, China, using the standardized precipitation index and aridity index . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 98 , 89 – 99 , doi: 10.1007/s00704-008-0095-4 .

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Susan Frankenstein, Maria Stevens, and Constance Scott

Houser P. R. , 2013 : Assimilation and downscaling of satellite observed soil moisture over the Little River Experimental Watershed in Georgia, USA . Adv. Water Resour. , 52 , 19 – 33 , doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.08.007 . Shoop, S. , 1993 : Terrain characterization for trafficability. U.S. Army CRREL Rep. 93 - 6 , 30 pp . Stevens, M. T. , Towne B. W. , Mason G. L. , Priddy J. D. , Osorio J. E. , and Barela C. A. , 2013 : Procedures for one-pass vehicle cone index (VCI1

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

al. 2012 ). This network provides measurements of surface soil moisture each hour. It has already been used for the evaluation of both remotely sensed and modeled soil moisture estimates ( Ceballos et al. 2005 ; Wagner et al. 2007 ; Albergel et al. 2012b , c ; Sánchez et al. 2012 ). (iv) Maqu The Maqu soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring network ( Su et al. 2011 ) was established in July 2008 in the source region of the Yellow River to the south of Maqu County in Gansu province, China

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