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Yundi Jiang, Wenjie Dong, Song Yang, and Jun Ma

China is more significant than that in southern China ( Sha et al. 2002 ; Zheng et al. 2002 ; Ge et al. 2003 ; Ye et al. 2003 ). The Yellow River (YR), which is mainly located between 33° and 43°N, flows from south to north from Lanzhou of Gansu Province to Hekou of Inner Mongolia, and from Zhengzhou of Henan Province to the estuary. ( Figure 1 shows the location of YR and several sites that are discussed in this study.) As a result, winter temperature is higher in the upper reach of the river

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Qiuhong Tang, Taikan Oki, Shinjiro Kanae, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction The Yellow River originates in the northern foothills of the Tibetan Plateau and empties into the Bohai Bay ( Fig. 1 ). The river length is 5500 km with a basin area of 752 000 km 2 (the watershed area is as large as 795 000 km 2 if the endoreic inner flow area is included). Most of the basin’s area is arid or semiarid. The Yellow River is the main source of surface water in northwest and northern China. As of 1997 there were 107 million inhabitants and 12.6 million hectares

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Amy Ffield

southernmost oceanic conditions experienced by more than half of all Atlantic hurricanes just prior to reaching the Caribbean Sea: 1) the spreading of freshwater discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers out into the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and 2) the periodic movement of North Brazil Current (NBC) rings through the river plumes. At the sea surface the freshwater discharges from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers spread outward, forming extensive low-salinity plumes. The ∼0.2 × 10 6 m 3 s −1

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Boris Orlowsky, Oliver Bothe, Klaus Fraedrich, Friedrich-Wilhelm Gerstengarbe, and Xiuhua Zhu

conditioned on the prescribed temperature trend. For demonstration purposes, we select the Yangtze River basin in central China. The climate of this region is complex and includes temperate inland, plateau, and monsoonal climatic regions. They are all transected by the Yangtze River, which provides a natural cross section through central China. Since it is one of the most important waterways of the world, reliable projections of its future climate are an important challenge. In the following, section 2

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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Larry A. Rundquist, Scott D. Lindsey, Xiangdong Zhang, and Richard L. Thoman

1. Introduction Because Alaska lacks roads in rural areas, rivers serve as critical highways—on ice in winter and on water in summer—but are impassable during breakup. In winter, rivers are used as ice roads to reach remote sites for oil and gas exploration and mining operations, as well as to reach the next village. The timing of ice-free conditions, which is dictated largely by the onset of breakup, signals the end of transportation on the ice and the ice roads. The breakup of river ice can

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Sonia Gámiz-Fortis, David Pozo-Vázquez, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Yolanda Castro-Díez

the extratropics ( Anderson et al. 1999 ). Seasonal and interannual streamflow variability plays an important role in the development and management of water resources in most regions of the world ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). The hydrological system acts as a sensible spatial and temporal integrator of precipitation (rain and snow), temperature, and related evapotranspiration over a specific region. Therefore, seasonal to interannual streamflow variability in many large river basins can be controlled

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Sonia Gámiz-Fortis, David Pozo-Vázquez, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Yolanda Castro-Díez

models in the northern extratropics. Streamflow reflects the influence of a certain number of parameters, namely, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and other hydrological cycle components, together with anthropogenic influences. The nature of the relationship between the climatic regimes over a river basin and its hydrological response, through its streamflow, presents different grades of complexity according to the physical characteristics of the basin. However, there are some objective reasons to

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Daniel Houle, Jean-David Moore, and Jean Provencher

temperatures in these latitudes is particularly important because they are expected to experience greater warming than the global NH ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). With the objective of creating a picture of past winter variations for a region of northeastern North America, a new winter temperature index (1620–1910) based on the ice bridge formation (IBF) rate on the Saint Lawrence River at Québec City ( Fig. 1 ) was developed by systematically scrutinizing historical documents. At Québec City, the river is

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Jennifer C. Adam and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

seasonality. In general, the largest increases have been observed during the cold season, which is also the season of low flow (October–April), while the spring snowmelt peak has shifted earlier ( Georgievskii et al. 1996 ; Yang et al. 2004a , b ; Yang et al. 2002 ), although this is not the case for all rivers. Changes in other seasons are generally less robust; for the Lena and Ob’ River basins, summer discharges have slightly increased, whereas fall discharges have slightly decreased ( Yang et al

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Aiguo Dai, Taotao Qian, Kevin E. Trenberth, and John D. Milliman

1. Introduction Continental freshwater runoff or discharge is an important part of the global water cycle ( Trenberth et al. 2007 ). Precipitation over continents partly comes from water evaporated from the oceans, and streamflow returns this water back to the seas, thereby maintaining a long-term balance of freshwater in the oceans. The discharge from rivers also brings large amounts of particulate and dissolved minerals and nutrients to the oceans (e.g., Boyer et al. 2006 ); thus it also

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