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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

models, the two currents are treated as one and named the KOE. The mean ocean biases near the KOE manifest in temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), and water mass distribution. Large and Danabasoglu (2006) show a large warm SST bias occurs in the KOE in the CCSM3. Thompson and Cheng (2008) compare a fully coupled model against the ocean-only model forced with atmosphere without year-to-year variability and show that biases in SST, circulation, and vertical structure in the ocean

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

a salinity range of 34.65–34.8 ( Suga and Hanawa 1990 ). It is readily identified by the aforementioned thermostads with potential density values of 24.8–25.7 kg m −3 ( Masuzawa 1969 ; Suga and Hanawa 1990 ; Bingham 1992 ), lying just above and within the permanent thermocline in the western North Pacific subtropical gyre. NPSTMW is formed in late winter in the deep mixed layer immediately south of the Kuroshio and the KE, when the cold dry continental air (cold air outbreaks) encounters the

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

axial migration may not be synchronized. In the OFES hindcast integration, the intensity and latitude of the OE front are closely related to the strength of the Oyashio, which tends to be strongly influenced by the wind forcing exerted on the western portion of the subpolar gyre but not on the central or eastern portion ( Nonaka et al. 2008 ). The SAFZs are also characterized by meridional salinity gradients with less saline water to their north, and thus their axial displacement yields salinity

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Jeffrey Shaman, R. M. Samelson, and Eric Skyllingstad

Gulf Stream. The subtropical mode water (STMW), or 18°C water, which dominates the upper water column in the northwestern Sargasso Sea, is defined by its relatively homogeneous temperature and salinity and may extend to depths of 500 m or more ( Worthington 1959 ; Marshall et al. 2009 ). Its vertical homogeneity and consequent weak static stability, which arise from large-scale constraints on the gyre circulation ( Dewar et al. 2005 ), allow the deep penetration of convective vertical exchange in

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

from the atmospheric fields for 1 November 1982 based on the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ). For the initial condition for the ocean model, the climatological temperature and salinity fields for January were taken from the World Ocean Atlas 1998 ( Antonov et al. 1998a , b , c ; Boyer et al. 1998a , b , c ) while no motion was assumed. Initially, sea ice was assigned with full concentration where the initial SST was

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

modified based on the Atlas buoy ( McPhaden 1995 ). The meteorological measurement system of the first version (JKEO1) was identical to the KEO system. The variables measured and the available periods of individual data are shown in Fig. 2 . They were recorded every 10 min or hourly. Both buoys also measured upper-ocean temperatures as well as salinity ( Fig. 2 ). The current speed was also measured at a depth of 11 m at the JKEO, and the uppermost current meter was mounted at 5 m at the KEO. The

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

to include seasonally resolved variations. Because the subsurface data for the region are sparse, the data selected [the World Ocean Database 2001 (WOD01), updated using the Global Temperature and Salinity Pilot Program (GTSPP) sources] are centered in the midpoint of each season (e.g., JFM for winter) and at each 1° latitude × 1° longitude, with a time–space range of ±1 yr, ±1° latitude and ±2° longitude, with a Gaussian taper having an e 2 -folding time scale of (1 yr) 2 , and spatial scales

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

temperature effects generally dominate over salinity effects on density in the subtropical gyre; accordingly, altimetric SSH is used to extrapolate the relatively sparse estimates of heat content from Argo floats ( Willis et al. 2004 ). In the WBCs positive anomalies of SSH are associated with higher heat content in the upper 800 m of the ocean ( Vivier et al. 2002 ; Dong and Kelly 2004 ). Large turbulent flux anomalies are caused by changes in WBC paths, consistent with the SST response to the path

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