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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

WRF–Noah and tested with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture data. In this paper, we aim to better understand how combined assimilation of precipitation and soil moisture can improve forecasting of land–atmospheric exchange and to understand their relative implications, rather than making any new algorithmic innovations to address the explained technical problems. To this end, we implement a combined variational data assimilation system to assimilate both satellite

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

aquifers (among other observations) ( Tapley et al. 2004 ); the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite ( Entekhabi et al. 2010 ); Aquarius (while it was operating), which observed ocean salinity ( Le Vine et al. 2010 ); and CloudSat , which measures the properties of clouds and light precipitation ( Stephens et al. 2002 ). Integrated multidisciplinary scientific investigations can provide greater understanding of our complex Earth system. GPM has and will continue to provide valuable and

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Lijing Cheng, Hao Luo, Timothy Boyer, Rebecca Cowley, John Abraham, Viktor Gouretski, Franco Reseghetti, and Jiang Zhu

analyses on side-by-side XBT and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) comparison experiments have been constructed to quantify the XBT errors ( Flierl and Robinson 1977 ; Anderson 1980 ; Green 1984 ; Hallock and Teague 1992 ; Bailey et al. 1994 ; Hanawa et al. 1995 ; Reseghetti et al. 2007 ; Cowley et al. 2013 ). These experiments were performed by near-simultaneous deployment of XBT and CTD [salinity–temperature–depth (STD) in earlier tests] devices from near coincident locations. Unfortunately

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

important over land surfaces, falling snow over oceans and lakes represents a loss to capturing that water for resources and can affect the water body characteristics by changing the salinity and/or water temperature ( Kattsov and Walsh 2000 ; Holland et al. 2007 ). Since it is difficult to measure global precipitation from ground-based observations ( Kidd et al. 2017 ), satellite observations are required (e.g., Levizzani et al. 2011 ). The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other

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Yalei You, S. Joseph Munchak, Christa Peters-Lidard, and Sarah Ringerud

radiometers on board the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite and the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite have a frequency of 1.4 GHz. The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on board the MetOp satellites operates at ~5.2 GHz. In contrast, the primary frequencies to measure the ice scattering over land from passive microwave radiometers are around 85 GHz and higher (e.g., 150 and 183 GHz). The lower frequencies used for soil moisture measurement can penetrate a thicker layer of soil and

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