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Tommy G. Jensen

, salinity, and mixed layer depth was forced by monthly climatological winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and relaxed to surface temperature ( Levitus and Boyer 1994 ) and salinity ( Levitus et al. 1994 ). The model was used to investigate the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal water exchanges and the associated cross-equatorial flows. However, it became apparent that this exchange was part of a much larger basinwide circulation with transport of low- and high-salinity water

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

the particles. These tracers are zero-buoyant and independent to any of the modeling restorations. Temperature ( T ) and salinity ( S ) are also typical tracers, which can be used to track the watermass by classical T – S analysis ( You and Tomczak 1993 ), while the difficulty is that they adjust to the surface forcing, and hence, lose the signature of their water types. Instead, the passive tracers with zero surface forcing and restoration will keep their signature on their journey, while they

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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

, since no two monsoons are alike, in no two years does the NIO behave the same way: there is considerable interannual variability ( Webster et al. 1998 ). This is reflected in the variations of temperature, salinity, and mixed layer processes and in the heat and salt budgets. The interannual variability of the heat budget of the upper ocean (or mixed layer) is of paramount interest for air–sea coupling. Several studies have examined the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer in the Arabian Sea (AS

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R. J. Murray, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and C. J. C. Reason

.8 kg m –3 ) and AAIW (0.33°C, 0.06 psu at 27.45 kg m –3 ) on neutral surfaces over the 1962–87 period and showed that the freshening on isopycnals above the intermediate salinity minimum was most likely the result of warmed surface waters. The analysis of temporal changes has been repeated and extended by Bryden et al. (2003) and McDonagh et al. (2005 , hereafter M05 ), but using only the data from the five synoptic sections. M05 found that there had been increases in salinity of up to 0

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J. C. Hermes, C. J. C. Reason, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms

. Temperature and salt are transported out of the domain using a radiation condition plus advection if the normal component of the velocity at the boundary is directed outward. For those boundary points where the normal velocity is into the domain, the restoration of the temperature and salinity to the monthly climatology of Levitus et al. (1994) and Levitus and Boyer (1994) occurs. Information about the barotropic circulation in the rest of the World Ocean is supplied to the model by prescribing the

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

Rayleigh friction with decay times of 30 and 11 months for the first and second baroclinic modes, respectively. Kelvin wave speeds correspond to 2.53 and 1.56 m s −1 , e -folding length scales L ≈ ( c / β ) 1/2 = 3.0° and 2.35°, and time scales ( T ≈ ( cβ ) −1/2 ) = 1.52 and 1.94 days, for the two baroclinic modes, respectively. Model wave speeds, length scales, and time scales are derived from density profile created using an average temperature and salinity profile from the World Ocean Atlas

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Tommy G. Jensen

circulation is intensified during El Niño, and in particular during IOD. Valsala and Ikeda are identifying the major pathways of water from the Indonesian Throughflow using particle trajectories, passive tracers, temperature, and salinity from an OGCM. They found three main routes: A clockwise circulation cell in the thermocline confined to the south of the equator, a near-surface branch entering the Arabian Sea via the Somali Current, and a cross-equatorial subsurface branch at depths between the two

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

given, with two exceptions. Lee and Marotzke (1998) and Zhang and Marotzke (1999) used an adjoint model to adjust their ocean circulation to match the observed Oberhuber (1988) climatology and also match observed temperature and salinity profiles. They were successful in obtaining physically realistic solutions, thereby showing that the real Indian Ocean circulation may, indeed, be compatible with the large observed heat fluxes of Fig. 1 —a very valuable result. However, such optimization by

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Peter R. Oke and Andreas Schiller

hybrid mixed layer model described by Chen et al. (1994) . The model is initially spun up for 20 yr using climatological winds and strong relaxation to the monthly Reynolds sea surface temperature (SST; Reynolds and Smith 1994 ) and the monthly mean sea surface salinity ( Levitus et al. 1994 ). Subsequently, the model is run for 12 yr, spanning 1982–94, and is forced by 3-day-averaged wind stress from a blend of National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research

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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

parameterized as eddy diffusion, with eddy viscosity coefficient A υ of 1 × 10 3 m 2 s −1 , and heat diffusion coefficient A h of 2 × 10 3 m 2 s −1 . The model does not have a representation for the Indonesian Throughflow, and there is no flow through the straits of the Indonesian Archipelago; at the southern boundary (30°S) a 5°-latitude-wide sponge restores temperature and salinity back to the Levitus (1982) climatology with a 30-day time scale. To initialize the model hindcast, the OGCM was

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