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  • Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) x
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Young-Kwon Lim, Robin M. Kovach, Steven Pawson, and Guillaume Vernieres

dataset (HadISST; Rayner et al. 2003 ) and the Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST; Reynolds et al. 2007 ). Subsurface temperatures over the equatorial Pacific are also analyzed to compare their anomalous structures between the three strongest El Niño events. We obtained the subsurface temperature, ocean surface current, and sea surface salinity (SSS) estimates from the ocean and sea ice retrospective analysis MERRA-Ocean ( Keppenne et al. 2008 ; Vernieres et al. 2012 ). The weakly

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Rolf H. Reichle, Clara S. Draper, Q. Liu, Manuela Girotto, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, Randal D. Koster, and Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy

Analysis Network (SCAN; Schaefer et al. 2007 ), the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN; Bell et al. 2013 ; Diamond et al. 2013 ), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity Meteorological Automatic Network Integrated Application (SMOSMANIA) sites in southwestern France ( Albergel et al. 2008 ; Dorigo et al. 2011 ), and the Oznet network in Australia’s Murrumbidgee catchment ( Smith et al. 2012 ). In total, we used measurements from 320 sites for surface soil moisture and 235 sites for root zone soil

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

surface pressure observation Pibal Pilot balloon PIREP Pilot report QBO Quasi-biennial oscillation Raob Radiosonde observation RAS Relaxed Arakawa–Schubert convection scheme RMS Root-mean-square RSS Remote Sensing Systems SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean SIC Sea ice concentration SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite SNPP Suomi National Polar

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