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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

. In this nonrheological system, ice grows or melts as a function of SST and heat fluxes. NCODA is an oceanographic implementation of the Naval Research Laboratory Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System (NAVDAS), a three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) technique developed for navy NWP systems ( Daley and Barker 2001 ). The NCODA 3DVAR analysis variables are temperature, salinity, geopotential (dynamic height), and u , υ vector velocity components. All ocean variables

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David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

conservation laws of heat, salinity, and momentum for the complete assimilation period. In particular, ECCO2 solutions do not contain discontinuities when and where data are ingested. State estimation is very different from meteorological data assimilation because the latter does not conserve energy, freshwater, or heat, and is dynamically inconsistent with gravity wave shocks produced at each assimilation period. ECCO2 solutions generated without and with data assimilation are referred to as Baseline and

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D. J. Lea, I. Mirouze, M. J. Martin, R. R. King, A. Hines, D. Walters, and M. Thurlow

(NEMOVAR; Mogensen et al. 2009 , 2012 ), which is run in 3DVAR-FGAT mode. The implementation here is based on that of the FOAM system ( Waters et al. 2014 ). The scheme assimilates in situ and satellite SST data, satellite altimeter sea level anomaly (SLA) data, satellite sea ice concentration data, and in situ temperature and salinity profiles from various sources including Argo, moored buoys, and temperature profiles from XBTs and marine mammals. Increments are applied to the model using the

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Norihisa Usui, Yosuke Fujii, Kei Sakamoto, and Masafumi Kamachi

) system ( Usui et al. 2006 ). The MOVE system is based on a multivariate 3DVAR analysis scheme with a vertically coupled temperature–salinity ( T – S ) empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modal decomposition of a background error covariance matrix ( Fujii and Kamachi 2003b ). The global version and the western North Pacific version of the MOVE system (MOVE-3DVAR-G and MOVE-3DVAR-WNP) have been used as operational systems at JMA since 2008. The main target of MOVE-3DVAR-G is El Niño

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Robin J. T. Weber, Alberto Carrassi, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes

initialized for decadal forecasts . Climate Dyn. , doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2678-y , in press . Smith , D. , and J. Murphy , 2007 : An objective ocean temperature and salinity analysis using covariances from a global model. J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , C02022 , doi: 10.1029/2005JC003172 . Smith , D. , A. Cusack , A. Colman , C. Folland , G. Harris , and J. Murphy , 2007 : Improved surface temperature prediction for the coming decade from a global climate model . Science , 317

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