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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

collection, a CTD mounted horizontally at the bottom of the frame, for continuous measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, and a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) for velocity observations (long yellow instrument mounted vertically in center) [photo courtesy of Lynne Talley, from Talley et al. (2011) ]. One hundred years ago, World War I (WWI) was just ending. Oceanographic research was conducted entirely from ships, with the newest oceanographic research ships powered by both

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

, where the ocean is a key element of the climate system. The turbulence is a mixture of classical three-dimensional turbulence, turbulence heavily influenced by Earth rotation and stratification, and a complex summation of random waves on many time and space scales. Stratification arises from temperature and salinity distributions under high pressures and with intricate geographical boundaries and topography. The fluid is incessantly subject to forced fluctuations from exchanges of properties with

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

surface geostrophic circulation, vector wind field, surface and internal gravity waves, sea ice, and a host of air–sea interaction processes. The success of Seasat had led the way to today’s capability of observing the global ocean with active sensors. In addition to radar active remote sensing, another important development was passive microwave radiometry and advanced visible and infrared sensors for measuring ocean surface properties like temperature, salinity, wind speed, and ocean color (in

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

available from the Polar Science Center (e.g., Thorndike and Colony 1981 ). Fig . 21-11. Sample distribution (9 Jan 2011) of buoys operating as part of the IABP network. Gray lines show buoy tracks over the previous 60 days (source: IABP; from an earlier version of ). In the past two decades, measurement capabilities of the buoys have been expanded to include subsurface variables such as ice and ocean temperature and salinity. Some buoys include ice mass

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

, with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry, has motivated practical schemes to better approximate mushy-layer physics (e.g., Vancoppenolle et al. 2009 ; Turner et al. 2013 ). Figure 12-11 is a schematic illustration of the grid cell of a state-of-the-art sea ice model with a thickness distribution. Each thickness category has a unique snow depth, melt pond depth and coverage, heat fluxes at the top and bottom, and vertical profile of temperature and salinity. A fraction of the grid

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

-central Pacific. In the western Pacific (bottom left), temperature anomalies extend farther poleward and the structure is very similar to what is expected from the gravest equatorially trapped Rossby modes. The Kelvin and Rossby signatures are also clearly seen in Fig. 8-7 , which shows the steric sea level height (including the correlated salinity changes) associated with the warm phase of ENSO. Altogether, the three-dimensional oceanic temperature structure that is correlated with ENSO is consistent with

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

white fly ( Nigam et al. 2016 ), among others. Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF; Yang et al. 2015 ) indicates photosynthetic activity with space-based monitoring capabilities ( Guan et al. 2015 ), and gross primary productivity (GPP; Running et al. 2000 ) can indicate biomass and carbon allotment for use in crop modeling. Soil moisture products from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean salinity instruments could provide much improved

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

), HEXOS ( DeCosmo et al. 1996 ), GASEX ( McGillis et al. 2004 ), SOWEX ( Banner et al. 1999 ), and SWADE ( Katsaros et al. 1993 ). Data were corrected for density variations (Webb correction) and salinity effects using methods of Fairall et al. (2003) . [Figure adapted from Drennan et al. (2007) .] Work continues on fluxes at extremely high winds. The effects of sea spray, though the subject of much speculation and study but few successful measurements, are still not well understood, according to a

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

the late 1990s, supplemented by moored buoys and ships. We should see an increase in the use of floats to provide profiles of temperature and salinity to ocean depths beyond the Argo 2000-m limit. Marine mammals will be increasingly instrumented to provide a new source of three-dimensional ocean data in rich ecosystems where needed. Underwater vehicles will routinely collect samples from the ocean and from coastal regions at various depths over periods ranging from weeks to months. Notably

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

, with the 1.4 GHz (L band) penetrating to about 5 cm, and less at higher frequencies. Soil moisture products have been generated from numerous sensors, from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) sensor on board Nimbus (launched in 1978) to the most recent European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2016 ) launched in 2009 and the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission ( Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) launched in 2015. Retrieval

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