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Karthik Balaguru, Gregory R. Foltz, L. Ruby Leung, John Kaplan, Wenwei Xu, Nicolas Reul, and Bertrand Chapron

and tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP), metrics for the warmth of the ocean surface and the depth of the warm water reservoir ( Shay et al. 2000 ), respectively, are used to represent the ocean in these models ( Kaplan et al. 2010 , 2015 ). Though SST and TCHP include effects of upper-ocean thermal structure, they do not incorporate salinity impacts on ocean stratification ( Balaguru et al. 2015 ). This leads to the following question: Does salinity play a role in RI? In the western tropical

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Paul A. Conrads and Lisa S. Darby

Changes in the salinity concentration of coastal waters during extreme meteorological conditions of droughts and floods can result in substantial short- and long-term environmental responses. Long-term weather extremes, such as droughts, can have devastating environmental and eco-nomic effects on many societal sectors including water management, energy production, and agricultural crops ( Wilhite 2000 ). In the United States the 2012 drought affected 22 states and cost an estimated $30

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J. Boutin, Y. Chao, W. E. Asher, T. Delcroix, R. Drucker, K. Drushka, N. Kolodziejczyk, T. Lee, N. Reul, G. Reverdin, J. Schanze, A. Soloviev, L. Yu, J. Anderson, L. Brucker, E. Dinnat, A. Santos-Garcia, W. L. Jones, C. Maes, T. Meissner, W. Tang, N. Vinogradova, and B. Ward

A synthesis of present knowledge about the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity at scales relevant to satellite salinity is presented. Photo: Raindrops on a water surface. [ID 5563454 ©Sailorman: Dreamstime.com .] L-band microwave radiometers on both the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Mecklenburg et al. 2012 ) and Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas-D (SAC-D) ( Lagerloef 2012 ) satellites have now demonstrated that they are

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A. V. S. Chaitanya, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V. V. Gopalakrishna, F. Durand, C. Kranthikumar, S. Amritash, V. Suneel, F. Papa, and M. Ravichandran

Measurements of salinity by fishermen in knee-deep water reveal a seasonal “river in the sea” flowing along the eastern coast of India The Indian Ocean is the only tropical ocean that is entirely bounded by a landmass to the north. In boreal summer, this unique geographical setting allows for a large differential heating between the Asian subcontinent and the ocean to the south that drives the most dramatic monsoonal wind system in the world. The southwest monsoon roughly lasts from June to

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Vlado Malačič and Nedjeljka Žagar

BACKGROUND: SEAWATER ICE AND ICICLES. The major characteristic of ice formed of seawater is that it contains salts, and its salinity is measurable ( Cox and Weeks 1974 ). The U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center ( http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/index.html ) offers the most comprehensive approach to this question. Sea ice (and sea icicles) is common in polar and subpolar regions ( Ehn et al. 2007 ). Freshwater icicles are also frequent in continental midlatitude areas, including inland

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, M. Ravichandran, Debasis Sengupta, S. U. P. Jinadasa, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Neeraj Agrawal, K. Arulananthan, G. S. Bhat, Mark Baumgartner, Jared Buckley, Luca Centurioni, Patrick Conry, J. Thomas Farrar, Arnold L. Gordon, Verena Hormann, Ewa Jarosz, Tommy G. Jensen, Shaun Johnston, Matthias Lankhorst, Craig M. Lee, Laura S. Leo, Iossif Lozovatsky, Andrew J. Lucas, Jennifer Mackinnon, Amala Mahadevan, Jonathan Nash, Melissa M. Omand, Hieu Pham, Robert Pinkel, Luc Rainville, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Daniel L. Rudnick, Sutanu Sarkar, Uwe Send, Rashmi Sharma, Harper Simmons, Kathleen M. Stafford, Louis St. Laurent, Karan Venayagamoorthy, Ramasamy Venkatesan, William J. Teague, David W. Wang, Amy F. Waterhouse, Robert Weller, and Caitlin B. Whalen

-ocean structure and its linkage to the northern Indian Ocean (IO) has been impeded because of uncertainty in the freshwater distribution, set by high rainfall and river runoff. Since shallow, salinity-controlled mixed layers (MLs) have a strong influence on the distribution of upper-ocean heat content and sea surface temperature (SST), determining the mixing pathways of river runoff and quantifying the upper-ocean freshwater budget are a priority. The importance of freshwater inputs and formation of shallow

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P. N. Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, K. Vijay Kumar, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, V. Thushara, Jenson George, V. Vijith, Benjamin G. M. Webber, Bastien Y. Queste, Rajdeep Roy, Amit Sarkar, Dariusz B. Baranowski, G. S. Bhat, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Simon C. Peatman, C. Parida, Karen J. Heywood, Robert Hall, Brian King, Elizabeth C. Kent, Anoop A. Nayak, C. P. Neema, P. Amol, A. Lotliker, A. Kankonkar, D. G. Gracias, S. Vernekar, A. C. D’Souza, G. Valluvan, Shrikant M. Pargaonkar, K. Dinesh, Jack Giddings, and Manoj Joshi

to the warmer water in the east. The sea surface salinity (SSS; Fig. 1b ) is higher in the west than in the east ( Vinayachandran et al. 2013 ). Most remarkably, the western part of the southern BoB is marked by the intense monsoon current that flows into the BoB carrying higher-salinity Arabian Sea Water. The atmosphere above the cold pool is characterized by a minimum in seasonal total rainfall ( Fig. 1a ) and has the lowest amount of low-level clouds in the region ( Shankar et al. 2007

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Gabriele C. Hegerl, Emily Black, Richard P. Allan, William J. Ingram, Debbie Polson, Kevin E. Trenberth, Robin S. Chadwick, Phillip A. Arkin, Beena Balan Sarojini, Andreas Becker, Aiguo Dai, Paul J. Durack, David Easterling, Hayley J. Fowler, Elizabeth J. Kendon, George J. Huffman, Chunlei Liu, Robert Marsh, Mark New, Timothy J. Osborn, Nikolaos Skliris, Peter A. Stott, Pier-Luigi Vidale, Susan E. Wijffels, Laura J. Wilcox, Kate M. Willett, and Xuebin Zhang

potentially related to climate change and are essential for diagnosing changes in the global water cycle. These include humidity, precipitation, P – E , and salinity. We also give recommendations that will lead to more robust predictions and identification of the human influence on recent observed changes. It is beyond the scope of this paper to provide a full review of water cycle changes or to discuss regional changes (see Collins et al. 2013 ; Sánchez-Lugo et al. 2014 ), changes in the biosphere

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Steven A. Rutledge, V. Chandrasekar, Brody Fuchs, Jim George, Francesc Junyent, Brenda Dolan, Patrick C. Kennedy, and Kyla Drushka

its first deployment during the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study, second field phase (SPURS-2) project, carried out in late fall 2017 on board the R/V Roger Revelle . The SPURS-2 targeted convective systems and rainfall in the east Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). We first describe the development of SEA-POL and installation and operation on the R/V Roger Revelle . Highlights from the cruise are then presented including polarimetric-based rain maps used to

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Ichiro Fukumori, Patrick Heimbach, Rui M. Ponte, and Carl Wunsch

global climatology has probably been the hydrographic compilation produced initially by Levitus (1982) and its successors as the World Ocean Atlas ( WOA ) in its latest form ( WOA13 ; Locarnini et al. 2013 ). They used data from the entire history of physical oceanographic measurements of temperature and salinity as a function of horizontal position and depth. Other global averages include that of Gouretski and Koltermann (2004) , from data of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). A

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