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Y. C. Sud and G. K. Walker

1. Introduction Even though the influence of oceanic salinity on the saturation vapor pressure of seawater is to depress it by roughly 2.0% (the actual value at a place being a function of the magnitude of salinity), climate modelers have chosen to ignore this effect presuming it to be insignificant compared to other parameters that affect air–sea fluxes. On the other hand, so much research and tuning effort has been devoted to better estimate the bulk surface transfer coefficients, C D and

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D. W. Stahle, R. D. Griffin, D. M. Meko, M. D. Therrell, J. R. Edmondson, M. K. Cleaveland, L. N. Stahle, D. J. Burnette, J. T. Abatzoglou, K. T. Redmond, M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan

conservation property at the southern end of the San Joaquin valley. This article describes tree-ring data from 36 old-growth blue oak woodlands and uses the strong precipitation signal embedded in the annual growth rings to reconstruct cool season precipitation for the North and South Coast Ranges and seasonal salinity levels in San Francisco Bay. The salinity reconstruction is possible because tree growth, streamflow, and freshwater inflow to the estuary are all controlled by winter precipitation totals

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Mark R. Jury

profiles via NOAA aircraft meteorological data reports (AMDAR; Moninger et al. 2003 ); local weather station records via Wunderground; Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)–Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) rainfall ( Adler et al. 2003 ; Joyce et al. 2004 ; Liu et al. 2012 ); Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) ocean reanalysis currents, temperature, and salinity in the surface layer [ Carton and Giese 2008 ; International

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Farhat Abbas and Derek A. Rose

dense liquid, a phenomenon known as gravity segregation (GS; Rose and Passioura 1971a ). The phenomenon of VF and GS occur in shape of preferential flow of viscous liquids: that is, from oil spill or liquid fertigation in agricultural fields ( Bowman and Rice 1986 ; Jaynes et al. 1988 ; Abbasi et al. 2003 ) and during the intrusion of saline groundwater into coastal aquifers ( Dogan and Fares 2008 ), respectively. It is important to achieve uniform sample concentration and flow velocity

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Mark R. Jury

; Lutjeharms and Meeuwis 1987 ). Other upwelling cells are located at Cape Columbine, at 33°S, and Hondeklip Bay, at 30°S ( Shannon 1985 ; Jury 1988 ), as reflected in the ocean climatology fields (cf. Figure 1 ). There are intermittent seasonal upwelling cells at the southern and northern boundaries of the Benguela system (Cape Peninsula, at 34°S, and Cape Frio, at 16°S), beyond which lie the warm Agulhas and Angola Currents characterized by higher temperature and salinity, lower chlorophyll ( Boyd et

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Nádia Gilma Beserra de Lima and Emerson Galvani

changes led to significant modifications in salinity; in changes of the depositional patterns of sediments and foraminiferal assemblages (including periods of defaunation); and, more drastically, in the input of heavy metals to the coastal environment ( Mahiques et al. 2009 ). This region is notable for its diversity and productivity. It is rich in aquatic species of high economic value and has extensive areas of mangroves, salt marshes, and Atlantic forest. Mangroves are characterized by their

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Farhat Abbas

crop water requirement for sustainable crop production, especially in the regions such as Faisalabad where saline groundwater not suitable for crops ( Rasul et al. 2012 ). There is a need to study the effects of these elevated temperatures on heat units for field as well as for fruits crops, plant phenology, fruits quality, and evapotranspiration. Acknowledgments Funds for this research were provided by the Higher Commission of Pakistan under Project 1-28/HEC/HRD/2011/740 entitled “Climate Change

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Hongshou Li

. Materials and methods In this work, we tested nine soil samples and three controls. Seven of the soil samples were clay with varying WCs, and two were saline soils. The three controls were air, water, and NaCl saturated solution. The main subject materials were clay obtained from the sediment of the Daquan River (near the Mogao Grottoes) and saline soil from the Gobi region near the laboratory. These were used to compare and analyze the potential influence of temperature on the EP in soils with

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Mark R. Jury

plume from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers that spreads across the eastern Caribbean via the North Brazil Current. The low salinity [<34.6 parts per thousand (ppt)] plume is buoyant and forms a shallow stable layer. Discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers average ~2.5 × 10 5 m 3 s −1 ( Perry et al. 1996 ; Pailler et al. 1999 ) and tend to peak in summer. As the plume spreads into the east Antilles it encounters incoming solar radiation of 230 W m −2 and a trade wind shadow next to the

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Kirk Zmijewski and Richard Becker

systems are outdated and inefficient, which increases water losses to evapotranspiration ( Cai et al. 2003 ). Because of these outdated irrigation systems, up to 40% of the water allocated to some farmers is lost to evapotranspiration and infiltration on transmission ( Forkutsa et al. 2009b ). Population expansion has also increased stress on water resources for drinking water and animals. In addition, constant irrigation and evapotranspiration cycles in the region have led to increased soil salinity

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