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Wade T. Crow, Concepcion Arroyo Gomez, Joaquín Muñoz Sabater, Thomas Holmes, Christopher R. Hain, Fangni Lei, Jianzhi Dong, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Martha C. Anderson

). This approach combines best-possible estimates of land surface states based on available observations and short-range atmospheric forecasts provided by the NWP system. In this regard, the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2012 ), specifically designed to measure surface SM and ocean salinity from space, provides a unique opportunity to assimilate L-band microwave brightness temperature (Tb) observations that are highly sensitive to surface SM

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Anne Felsberg, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Manuela Girotto, Jean Poesen, Rolf H. Reichle, and Thomas Stanley

. Here, we will investigate the potential of two L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave satellite missions that are dedicated to soil moisture monitoring, i.e., the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions ( Kerr et al. 2012 ; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). We further use data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which provides anomalies in the vertically integrated terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater, soil moisture, snow

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Jesse E. Bell, Michael A. Palecki, C. Bruce Baker, William G. Collins, Jay H. Lawrimore, Ronald D. Leeper, Mark E. Hall, John Kochendorfer, Tilden P. Meyers, Tim Wilson, and Howard J. Diamond

fiscal year 2009. The addition of soil observations will not only directly improve U.S. drought-monitoring capabilities, but USCRN will now be able to assist in validation of newly or soon-to-be deployed satellites for soil moisture monitoring [e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity ( SMOS ) and Soil Moisture Active Passive ( SMAP )]. In March 2009, national and international soil-measurement experts from multiple government agencies and academic institutions were invited to Oak Ridge, Tennessee

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R. Rosolem, W. J. Shuttleworth, M. Zreda, T. E. Franz, X. Zeng, and S. A. Kurc

providing validation to satellite remote sensing soil moisture data products, including those from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2001 ) and the future Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). Primary cosmic rays (mainly protons) generate cascades of secondary high-energy neutrons through collisions with nuclei in the atmosphere ( Hess et al. 1959 ). When these high-energy neutrons reach the soil, fast neutrons are created within the

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Prabhakar Shrestha

water storage. The model was then initialized with spinup soil–vegetation states, and a 10-yr transient run from 2008 to 2017 was conducted using the offline atmospheric forcing data. The vegetation phenology (consisting of monthly data) was updated yearly based on the MODIS remote sensing product. The model was integrated at hourly frequency, and the outputs were generated at 5-day intervals. d. Observations The near-surface soil moisture from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al

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Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Chen Zhao, Zachary T. Leasor, and Christian Landry

.25° horizontal resolution. We use the ESA-CCI dataset in this study instead of an individual platform such as Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) or Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L3; Kerr et al. 2010 ) because of their relatively short data records (~5 years and ~11 years, respectively). ESA-CCI provides daily soil moisture observations in units of volumetric water content (m 3 m −3 ). The Noah soil moisture dataset, which is part of the National Land Data Assimilation

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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)] do not have a sufficiently long data record, we use daily surface soil moisture derived from the reanalysis system and land data assimilation system. The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA is a state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalysis that assimilates a vast number of in situ and remote sensing observations

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Peter J. Shellito, Sujay V. Kumar, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Patricia Lawston-Parker, John D. Bolten, Michael H. Cosh, David D. Bosch, Chandra D. Holifield Collins, Stan Livingston, John Prueger, Mark Seyfried, and Patrick J. Starks

Jackson , T. J. , T. J. Schmugge , and J. R. Wang , 1982 : Passive microwave sensing of soil moisture under vegetation canopies . Water Resour. Res. , 18 , 1137 – 1142 , https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i004p01137 . 10.1029/WR018i004p01137 Jackson , T. J. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Validation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 50 , 1530 – 1543 , https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2011.2168533 . 10

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Rolf H. Reichle, Qing Liu, Joseph V. Ardizzone, Wade T. Crow, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, Jianzhi Dong, John S. Kimball, and Randal D. Koster

for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and its successor, AMSR2; the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT); the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission; the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission; and the Sentinel-1 mission (e.g., Wagner et al. 2013 ; Parinussa et al. 2015 ; Chan et al. 2016 ; Kerr et al. 2016 ; Fernandez-Moran et al. 2017 ; Babaeian et al. 2019 ; Bauer-Marschallinger et al. 2019 ; Das et al. 2019 ). The L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave brightness temperature (Tb

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Xiang Gao, Alexander Avramov, Eri Saikawa, and C. Adam Schlosser

), the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) ( Kerr et al. 2012 ), the MetOp-A / B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) ( Wagner et al. 2013 ), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) mission, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) ( Njoku et al. 2003 ), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) mission ( Parinussa et al. 2015 ). Satellite retrievals of soil moisture suffer from several limitations ( Entekhabi et al. 2004 ), including a shallow

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