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Katherine McCaffrey, Baylor Fox-Kemper, and Gael Forget

cascades. The structure function statistic is a useful constraint on high-resolution models, as structure functions are easy to calculate in a model from even a single output snapshot. In this study, temperature and salinity data from Argo are used to characterize large-scale turbulence at depth by constructing structure functions and, when relevant, inferring the related temperature and salinity variance spectra. 2. Framework Ocean surface observations suggest that the spectral behavior for scales

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Juan A. Saenz, Rémi Tailleux, Edward D. Butler, Graham O. Hughes, and Kevin I. C. Oliver

to the ocean with a nonlinear equation of state. However, the physical basis for such skepticism has been lacking. In this paper, we investigate the reference state for the ocean with a nonlinear equation of state for seawater by generalizing the approach proposed by Tseng and Ferziger (2001) , based on the volume frequency distribution of water masses in temperature–salinity space. We demonstrate that, for all practical purposes, the oceanic reference state can be regarded as well defined. In

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Michael A. Spall

than the inflowing Atlantic Water so, relative to that salinity, the Pacific inflow is also a source of freshwater. Because of this, the surface waters over the shelves in the Arctic are much fresher than the Atlantic water entering through Fram Strait. This buoyant water of shelf origin is carried into the interior near the surface, leading to the salinity-dominated stable stratification and the halocline. The processes by which this freshwater is transported to the basin interior are not well

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Xia Liu, Mu Mu, and Qiang Wang

large domain is for the nest-1 simulation, and the domain in the black box is for the nest-2 simulation. Nest 1 was forced by monthly climatology data with an annual cycle, which was derived from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) ( Diaz et al. 2002 ). The initial velocity and free-surface elevation were set to zero, and the initial temperature and salinity were prescribed by the monthly climatology of the World Ocean Atlas ( WOA2009 ; Antonov et al. 2010 ; Locarnini et al. 2010

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Catherine A. Vreugdenhil, Andrew McC. Hogg, Ross W. Griffiths, and Graham O. Hughes

at room temperature, 21° ± 1°C, and the tank is insulated with styrofoam on all sides, except the top, to reduce the impact of small fluctuations in room temperature. A vertical partition separates the main compartment (the working volume) from a thin compartment that continually drains to waste, effectively keeping the working volume constant throughout an experiment. Fig . 1. The experimental arrangement. Below the saline source, the falling plume entrains interior water through the abyssal

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

conditions were taken from the Common Ocean Reference Experiment Normal Year Forcing field ( Large and Yeager 2004 ). In addition, a diurnal cycle in shortwave radiation was imposed, as we found this was necessary to produce the appropriate shear and stratification in and near the mixed layer (not shown), consistent with the studies of Kawai and Wada (2007) and Bernie et al. (2007) . At the meridional boundaries, temperature and salinity were nudged to climatological values, while zonal and meridional

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Takeyoshi Nagai, Amit Tandon, Eric Kunze, and Amala Mahadevan

sampled across the Kuroshio Front along 143°E during 8–10 August 2008 and 8–10 August 2011 and along 142°E during 9–11 August 2012. In these field programs, expendable bathythermographs (XBT T-7s) were deployed every 3.7 km in 2008 and 2011 and 2.8 km in 2012 to measure temperature in the upper 750 m from 36°36′ to 35°N during 2008, 36°30′ to 34°30′N during 2011, and 35°44′ to 34°19′N during 2012. A freefall towyo CTD (Underway CTD) was used to measure upper-500-m temperature and salinity every 14

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

and McWilliams 2005 ). It solves the hydrostatic primitive equations for the velocity u , potential temperature θ , and salinity S , using a full equation of state for seawater ( Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2008 , 2011 ). Because our primary target is to expose submesoscale phenomena with horizontal scales of O (1) km in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, we use a nesting approach with successive horizontal grid nesting refinements from a parent grid with resolution of Δ x ≈ 5 km covering the

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Jörn Callies and Raffaele Ferrari

scales larger than about 10 km (as shown, for example, by the dotted purple line in Fig. 5 , described in greater detail below). The GM spectra can also be used to deduce the passive-tracer variance generated by the internal-wave continuum, on both horizontal and isopycnal surfaces. For tracers with vertical gradients much larger than isopycnal gradients, like temperature or salinity, the tracer variance on horizontal surfaces is dominated by distortions of the vertical background gradient. We can

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Peter E. Hamlington, Luke P. Van Roekel, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Gregory P. Chini

is the density, and ρ 0 is a reference density. The density is given by the linear equation of state where θ is the temperature, β T is the (presumed constant) thermal expansion coefficient, and salinity effects have been neglected. Parameter values used to obtain ρ and b are g = 9.81 m s −2 , θ 0 = 290.16 K, ρ 0 = 1000 kg m −3 , and β T = 2 × 10 −4 K −1 . The Coriolis parameter, , is strictly in the vertical direction for simplicity. These and other parameters used in the

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