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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

-ocean DIC content We assume that the upper-ocean carbon cycle feedback is dominated by the response of seawater carbon chemistry to climate change and rising CO 2 levels. To quantify the relative importance of different factors, we apply a simplified model for changes in surface ocean DIC concentration (using simulated annual mean fields of sea surface temperature, salinity, and alkalinity). We assume here that these surface changes are roughly representative for the upper ocean (0–500-m depth). Since

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

assessing projections for future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (e.g., Marinov et al. 2008 ; Cadule et al. 2010 ). Variations of surface water p CO 2 are governed by surface ocean temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity (Alk). Surface ocean temperature and salinity are controlled by the coupled ocean–atmosphere physical processes. DIC and alkalinity are controlled by the air–sea gas exchange, horizontal and vertical transport, and mixing, as well as biological

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

on a 2° × 2° latitude–longitude mesh and were derived from more than five million individual vertical profiles measured between 1941 and 2008, including data from Argo profilers as archived by the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). To solve the MLD overestimation due to salinity stratification, in this dataset the depth of the mixed layer is defined as the uppermost depth at which temperature differs from the temperature at 10 m by 0.2°C

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

, 329 , 834 – 838 , doi:10.1126/science.1184984 . Bleck , R. , C. Rooth , D. Hu , and L. T. Smith , 1992 : Salinity-driven thermocline transient in a wind and thermohaline-forced isopycnic coordinate model of the North Atlantic . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 22 , 1486 – 1505 . Blyth , E. , and Coauthors , 2006 : JULES: A new community land surface model. Global Change Newsletter, No. 66, IGBP, Stockholm, Sweden, 9–11. Boer , G. J. , and V. K. Arora , 2010 : Geographic aspects of

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