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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

experiments are performed ( Table 1 ). Each perturbation run is continued for 100 years, and the transient response of each experiment is compared with the equivalent period in CTR to quantify AABW’s sensitivity to each buoyancy flux change. Fig . 4. Model control state (averaged over years 490–500) of (a) zonally averaged temperature (°C), with contours at 0.5°C intervals, (b) zonally averaged salinity with contours at 0.04-psu intervals, (c) evolution of AABW and NADW transports at 30°S and 30°N

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N. Fauchereau, B. Pohl, and A. Lorrey

, 2004 : Variability of Antarctic circumpolar transport and the Southern Annular Mode associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L24312 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL021666 . Matthews , A. J. , P. Singhruck , and K. J. Heywood , 2010 : Ocean temperature and salinity components of the Madden–Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats . Climate Dyn. , 35 , 1149 – 1168 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0631-7 . Michelangeli , P.-A. , R. Vautard , and B. Legras

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Ariaan Purich, Matthew H. England, Wenju Cai, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, John C. Fyfe, Leela Frankcombe, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

salinity anomalies (ORAS4; Balmaseda et al. 2013 ) into the ocean component of the coupled model. Data in sea ice regions are not assimilated, so temperature anomalies in the sea ice region are not constrained by observations and sea ice variations are completely controlled by the internal dynamics. Because these experiments assimilate anomalies rather than absolute fields, the assimilation takes into account model biases related to the climatology, as well as having an externally forced component

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