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Catherine Champagne, Andrew Davidson, Patrick Cherneski, Jessika L’Heureux, and Trevor Hadwen

-real-time measurements of soil moisture conditions at the surface. The Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched in November 2009 with goals that included the direct measurement of soil moisture at the earth’s surface and the integration of these measurements into land surface models to estimate root zone soil moisture conditions ( Kerr et al. 2001 ). Beginning with the 2010 growing season and continuing to the end of the 2013 growing season, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) piloted the use of

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John D. Hottenstein, Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos, Julio Moguel-Yanes, and M. Susan Moran

. 2002 ; Cox et al. 1986 ). Second, the currently orbiting Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) sensors will provide global measurements of soil moisture at this depth ( Kerr et al. 2001 ; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). 2. Methods a. Study sites and data selection Nine sites were selected across the southern United States ( Fig. 1 ), composed of seven Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations, one U

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Sujay V. Kumar, Kenneth W. Harrison, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., and Dalia Kirschbaum

-band (~6 GHz) microwave radiometers. However, none of these sensors were specifically designed to measure soil moisture until the launch of the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; since late 2009) from the European Space Agency (ESA), which provides global observations for soil moisture and salinity from an L-band radiometer. Compared to the X and C bands, the L-band-based measurements have reduced attenuation of the signal under moderate vegetation conditions and increased penetration depth for

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M. Susan Moran, Bradley Doorn, Vanessa Escobar, and Molly E. Brown

(SCAN) were used to better understand the impact of a changing climate on soil moisture for more efficient resource management and better-informed policy decisions ( Hottenstein et al. 2015 ). Early adopters have taken advantage of soil moisture observations derived from other orbiting sensors including the EUMETSAT Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Though ASCAT

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E on the Aqua satellite from 6.9 to 89.0 GHz), WindSat (from 6.8 to 37 GHz), and the scatterometer on board the European Remote Sensing Satellite ( ERS-1 and ERS-2 , 5.3 GHz). More recently, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS, in L band ~1.42 GHz), a dedicated soil moisture mission, was launched (November 2009) ( Kerr et al. 2010 ). In addition, the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on board MetOp-A (launched

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Fan Chen, Wade T. Crow, and Dongryeol Ryu

combination of passive microwave data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and active microwave observation from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), near-daily soil moisture retrieval temporal frequency can be achieved. Through enhancement of both precipitation and antecedent soil moisture, this dual-assimilation system aims to simultaneously correct random errors in both soil moisture and rainfall precipitation inputs (via SMART) and therefore maximize the utility of existing remotely

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

Mahanama et al. (2012) in their forecast experiments and then quantify the resulting degradation of the streamflow forecasts. The degradation is then interpreted in terms of the increase in skill attainable from improvements in soil moisture initialization, improvements that are expected from the assimilation of data from current and upcoming satellite-based soil moisture missions [viz., the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2010 ) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP

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Marco L. Carrera, Stéphane Bélair, and Bernard Bilodeau

–atmosphere interactions. Given the significant advances in the development of earth observation systems, real opportunities exist to improve the representation of the land surface, and soil moisture in particular, within numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. Two separate satellite missions dedicated to the measurement of microwave radiation emitted from the soil surface in the highly sensitive L-band frequency have been developed. In November 2009, the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched by

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