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  • Intercomparisons of 4D-Variational Assimilation and the Ensemble Kalman Filter x
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Tijana Janjić, Lars Nerger, Alberta Albertella, Jens Schröter, and Sergey Skachko

filter length is driven by the spatial resolution of the gravity field. For the GRACE-based gravity field model ITG03s ( Mayer-Gürr 2007 ), the filter half-width is typically 240 km. The polar areas, part of the Indonesian region, and the Mediterranean Sea are characterized by low data accuracy due to the presence of ice or complex bottom topography. For this reason, the observational data are substituted in these regions by the values of the ( Rio et al. 2005 , hereafter RIO05 ) mean dynamical

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Takuya Kawabata, Tohru Kuroda, Hiromu Seko, and Kazuo Saito

adjoint model included only dry dynamics and advection of water vapor, they succeeded in reproducing observed cumulonimbi by assimilating RW and GPS-PWV data. Their study was the first to demonstrate the feasibility of short-range forecasting of local heavy rainfall brought about by deep convection, using a full-blown numerical model and a dense observation network. They were able to successfully reproduce deep convection because the convection was initiated by the low-level convergence of a sea

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Marc Bocquet, Carlos A. Pires, and Lin Wu

, thresholds of microphysics (cloud, ice, rain), chemistry of atmospheric compounds (including thermodynamics and aerosols size evolution equations), increases in the model resolution that require finer physical schemes such as for precipitation at convective scale, and nonlinearity of observation operator model (remote sensing applications especially: lidar and satellite), etc. Many of these sources of nonlinearities have been discussed by Andersson et al. (2005) . b. Non-Gaussianity from priors 1) Prior

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