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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

supercooled liquid ( Vali et al. 2015 )] ranging from 3 to 250 m −3 (median 14 m −3 ) over the Southern Ocean ( Bigg 1973 ). More recently, DeMott et al. (2015) compared number concentrations and surface site densities of aerosols observed in some marine environments with laboratory studies where generated sea spray was the only INP source. Their data suggest that marine INPs are distinctly less efficient than land-sourced INPs such that the ice nucleating ability of marine aerosol needs to be

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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

with this trailing front north and east of Houston became more intense ( Figs. 1a,d ). Together with the deepening boundary layer and a sea breeze, widespread scattered convective clouds were also generated along the coastal region. All the models captured these two regions of convective clouds and precipitation at the onset of this event ( Figs. 2a–g ), which can also be seen in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s national stage IV quantitative precipitation estimate product ( Du

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

types of sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles that contribute to heterogeneous ice nucleation in these clouds or the mechanisms that control emission rates of INPs from the oceans beneath them. Number concentrations of INPs and active site densities (number concentration of INPs normalized by total aerosol surface area) associated with SSA generated via wave breaking and bubble bursting at the ocean surface are lower compared to terrestrial sources such as mineral dust ( DeMott et al. 2016

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

biological activity, they might significantly affect cloud formation ( Hoose et al. 2010 ). Primary biological particles associated with sea spray have gained increasing attention in recent years as field studies have suggested their ice nucleation activity plays a dominant role at remote marine locations ( Bigg 1973 ; Wilson et al. 2015 ). Knopf et al. (2014) observed that the majority of INPs were associated with aged sea salt particles at a marine site close to anthropogenic and biogenic sources

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Romy Ullrich, Corinna Hoose, Ottmar Möhler, Monika Niemand, Robert Wagner, Kristina Höhler, Naruki Hiranuma, Harald Saathoff, and Thomas Leisner

), or an aerosol particle colliding with the droplet (contact nucleation) ( Vali et al. 2015 ). Aerosol particles in the atmosphere originate from different sources and include a variety of compounds. The most abundant particle types are composed of sulfate, mineral dust, sea salt, soot, and organic material ( Stier et al. 2005 ). However, only a minor part of the atmospheric aerosol particles contributes to the ice formation in clouds. The ice active particle fraction strongly depends on the

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

1. Introduction The annual discharge of anthropogenic aerosols into the atmosphere is considerable, but the effects of those aerosols on weather and climate remain very uncertain ( IPCC 2007 ). Aerosols can absorb and reflect solar radiation, thereby reducing the surface temperature and planetary boundary layer height, but they also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei, affecting cloud microphysics and subsequent precipitation rates, and increasing cloud coverage, albedo, and

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

. G. , H. Jiang , and W. R. Cotron , 2005 : Impact of aerosol intrusions on Arctic boundary layer clouds. Part II: Sea ice melting rates . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 3094 – 3105 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3558.1 . Carrió , G. G. , W. R. Cotton , and A. M. Loftus , 2014 : On the response of hailstorms to enhanced CCN concentrations . Atmos. Res. , 143 , 342 – 350 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.03.002 . Carslaw , K. S. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Large contribution of natural aerosols to

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Eyal Ilotoviz, Alexander P. Khain, Nir Benmoshe, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

favored region of moderate updraft strength, where the hailstone fall velocity approximately balances the updraft speed. Using a spectral bin microphysics model, Takahashi (1976) also found that the recycling of hail within cloud updrafts was a key factor in its growth. In the Takahashi model, recycled ice crystals lead first to graupel formation. At the last stage of the storm process hail falls in the cloud center, growing by accretion of cloud droplets. The importance of hail embryo recycling for

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

1. Introduction By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei, atmospheric aerosols affect cloud and precipitation processes, referred to as the aerosol microphysical effect (AME) ( Twomey 1977 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ; DeMott et al. 2011 ; Tao and Matsui 2015 ). Aerosols also alter the earth radiative budget by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation ( Charlson and Pilat 1969 ; Coakley et al. 1983 ; Peng et al. 2016 ), referred to as the aerosol direct effect

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

1. Introduction By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and/or ice nuclei, aerosols affect Earth’s energy budget through the modification of cloud properties, which is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) ( Twomey 1977 ; Albrecht 1989 ; Ramaswamy et al. 2001 ; Lohmann and Feichter 2005 ; Tao et al. 2012 ). A greater number of smaller cloud droplets formed in a dirty environment suppresses collision and coalescence processes and thus delays or inhibits rainfall. This

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