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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

University of Victoria (UVic) ESCM] to investigate the nonlinearity of the carbon cycle feedback on a 500-yr time scale. For the ocean, the latter authors found that the weakening of ocean circulation and increased stratification under climate change is responsible for a large part of the simulated nonlinearity since these changes have a different effect on ocean carbon uptake depending on whether atmospheric CO 2 is rising. They also attributed a part of the nonlinearity to sea ice retreat in the

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

, J. H. Jungclaus , M. Latif , and F. Roske , 2003 : The Max-Planck-Institute global ocean/sea ice model with orthogonal curvilinear coordinates . Ocean Modell. , 5 , 91 – 127 . McNeil , B. I. , N. Netzl , R. M. Key , R. J. Matear , and A. Corbiere , 2007 : An empirical estimate of the Southern Ocean air-sea CO 2 flux . Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 21, GB3011 , doi:10.1029/2007GB002991 . Mikaloff Fletcher , S. E. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Inverse estimates of

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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

( Krinner et al. 2005 ). The atmospheric and land components use the same regular horizontal grid with 96 × 96 points, representing a resolution of 3.6° × 1.8°, while the atmosphere has 39 vertical levels. The oceanic component is NEMOv3.2 ( Madec 2008 ), which includes the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model (LIM; Fichefet and Morales Maqueda 1997 ) and the marine biogeochemistry model PISCES ( Aumont and Bopp 2006 ). The ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 2°–0.5° and 31 vertical levels. The land

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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

explains why remains the major variance term at the end of the twenty-first century ( Fig. 4h ). Having outlying GCMs ( Fig. 4e ) greatly increases ; IPSL-CM5A-LR is one outlier here whose anomalous behavior may result from the parameterization of ice calving, which produces a flux of freshwater from the polar ice sheets ( Marti et al. 2010 ; Roy et al. 2011 ). d. Variability in regional land CO 2 fluxes We performed ANOVA for the three land regions defined in Table 3 . The behavior of the

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

and the differences are comparatively small in comparison to the model differences ( Scherrer 2011 ). However, CRU provides data for the entire twentieth century allowing the evaluation of the simulated temperature and precipitation trends. 2) Sea surface temperature For the sea surface temperature evaluation we use the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST; Rayner et al. 2003 ), a combination of monthly global SST and sea ice fractional coverage on a 1° × 1° spatial

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

sea ice, putting emphasis on land–atmosphere interactions. This approach allows isolation of the direct effects of LULCC on the atmosphere from the indirect effects caused by interactions with the other components of climate system (e.g., sea ice). However, neglecting these feedbacks may reduce the magnitude of effects of LULCC on climate (e.g., Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré 2010 ). On decadal to centennial time scales, the feedbacks through interactive SSTs and sea ice have the potential to

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

) from Japan is based on the global climate Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) coupled GCM consisting of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), an ocean GCM with an inclusive sea ice component [Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) Ocean Component Model (COCO)], and a land surface model (MATSIRO) with six layers of soil to a depth of 14 m ( Takata et al. 2003 ). SEIB-DGVM is employed to simulate the changes of 11 tree PFTs and 2 grass PFTs. It contains two soil

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Chris Jones, Eddy Robertson, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Elena Shevliakova, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Tomohiro Hajima, Etsushi Kato, Michio Kawamiya, Spencer Liddicoat, Keith Lindsay, Christian H. Reick, Caroline Roelandt, Joachim Segschneider, and Jerry Tjiputra

carbon storage, we use the CMIP5 reported values of air-to-sea flux fgco2 and integrate this over time to give a change in ocean storage. For atmospheric CO 2 , we use the globally uniform concentration (ppm) provided by the RCP scenarios and multiply it by 2.12 PgC ppm −1 to obtain the atmospheric carbon burden (PgC). 3. Results a. Changes in land carbon uptake and storage Figure 2 shows changes in the total land carbon storage ( Fig. 2a ) and individual changes in vegetation and soil ( Figs. 2b

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