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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

large over the land and in the vicinity of land–ocean boundaries (not shown). Values along the storm track are only moderately large and are roughly half of those in areas of large variance over the land and land–sea boundaries. These patterns arise from large fluctuations in the near-surface temperature over the land because of the much smaller heat capacity of the land surface as compared to that of oceans. Also, the large values to the north of the storm track may reflect the effect of sea ice in

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

section 3 describes the impacts of the SST front on distributions of surface heat flux and SAT. These results are discussed in sections 4 and 5 provides a summary and conclusion. 2. Model and reanalysis data a. CFES In this study we analyze the first five years of an integration of the CGCM for the Earth Simulator (CFES; Komori et al. 2008a , b ), which consists of the Atmospheric GCM for the Earth Simulator version 2 (AFES2; Enomoto et al. 2008 ) and the Coupled Ocean–Sea Ice model for the

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

anomalies in determining anomalous turbulent heat flux. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 3304 . doi:10.1029/2002JC001750 . Wallace , J. M. , G. Lim , and M. L. Blackmon , 1988 : Relationship between cyclone tracks, anticyclone tracks, and baroclinic waveguides. J. Atmos. Sci. , 45 , 439 – 462 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 . Yu , L. , X. Jin , and

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Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Michael A. Alexander

response into a larger equivalent barotropic one ( Ferreira and Frankignoul 2005 , 2008 ; Deser et al. 2007 ). Similarly, the statistical analysis of Strong et al. (2009) suggests that the maximum impact of persistent sea ice forcing is reached after 2 months. Such a delay would be consistent with the stronger covariance found in the observations when the atmosphere follows the SST anomalies by at least 2 months ( Czaja and Frankignoul 2002 ; FS07 ). In this case, the relation in (1) should take

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

. 2009 ). The instability maximum along 60°S is associated with the sea ice edge. It is also a surface baroclinic zone and a genesis region for ETCs in the winter ( Hoskins and Hodges 2005 ). This surface storm-track maximum along the ice edge is distinct from the other surface storm-track maxima, because it does not occur in a region of strong surface currents. The spatial pattern of the surface storm in the Southern Ocean affirms that the surface wind variability is not some artifact related to

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

along Newfoundland but rather penetrates to the east. The SSH variability maximum is again displaced upstream of the observational counterpart. The global model does not directly simulate sea ice extent, but instead both SST and SSS are strongly relaxed to the climatology in regions of climatological sea ice cover. A comparison of the two model simulations indicates that constraining the North Atlantic at the northern boundary by relaxation to climatology throughout the water column results in a

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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

greenhouse gases, ozone, and aerosols. The ocean and sea ice models share the same horizontal grid, with approximately 1° longitudinal resolution and variable latitudinal resolution that is finest near the equator at 0.27° and coarsest in the far northwestern Pacific (∼0.6°). The ocean component is described in detail in Gent and Danabasoglu (2004) . The Gent and McWilliams (1990) parameterization is used that mixes along isopycnals with a Laplacian operator with a diffusion value of 600 m 2 s −1

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

(1988) report a surface convergence zone along the Gulf Stream during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) in winter. Warner et al. (1990) and Doyle and Warner (1993) suggest that sharp sea surface temperature (SST) gradient causes the surface convergence zone using mesoscale model experiments, while Sublette and Young (1996) show that the convergence can be seen in the warm season. Using satellite images, Alliss and Raman (1995a , b) show that high clouds frequently occur over

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

. Lee , A. Nguyen , M. Schodlok , and H. Zhang , 2008 : ECCO2: High-resolution global ocean and sea ice data synthesis . Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter, Vol. 31, Mercator Ocean, Agne, France, 13–21 . Miller , A. J. , D. R. Cayan , T. P. Barnett , N. E. Graham , and J. M. Oberhuber , 1994 : Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies . Climate Dyn. , 9 , 287 – 302 . Oka , E. , 2009 : Seasonal and

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

baroclinic zone along the APFZ with a strong meridional SST gradient ( Figs. 1c,d , 10d,f ). Again, the shallow near-surface sensible heating that exhibits sharp meridional gradient across the APFZ ( Fig. 13 ) is most efficient in maintaining the surface baroclinicity in the vicinity of the core region of the SH storm track ( Fig. 14 ). Another maximum in near-surface baroclinicity in Fig. 14c located at ~60°S, which can also be seen in the observations ( Fig. 10f ), is due to a ice–sea contrast

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