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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

−1 ), θ i is the volumetric ice content (cm 3 cm −3 ), θ υ is the volumetric water vapor content (cm 3 cm −3 ), υ w is the vertical rate of water flow (m s −1 ), υ υ is the vertical rate of water vapor flow (m s −1 ), ρ i is the density of ice (kg m −3 ), ρ w is the density of water (kg m −3 ), and z is depth (m) measured positive upward from sea level. The second and third terms on the left-hand side of Eq. (1) represent heat lost/gained as a result of ice formation/melting and

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

set from the initial snow conditions or calculated at the end of the last model time step. The cold contents are calculated from the specific heat of ice, layer temperature, and specific mass. The specific heat of ice for each layer is calculated as a function of layer temperature. Table 1 presents the state and forcing variables required by the model. State variables are input as initial conditions and then updated by the model during the run. Forcing variables are used by the model to predict

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Janet Hardy, Robert Davis, Yeohoon Koh, Don Cline, Kelly Elder, Richard Armstrong, Hans-Peter Marshall, Thomas Painter, Gilles Castres Saint-Martin, Roger DeRoo, Kamal Sarabandi, Tobias Graf, Toshio Koike, and Kyle McDonald

1. Introduction The local scale observation site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX; D. Cline et al. 2008, unpublished manuscript) and is located within the Fraser mesocell study area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest headquarters facility in Fraser, Colorado [39°54′13″N, 105°52′59″W; 2780 m asl (meters above sea level); Fig. 1 ]. The 0.8-ha triangular site consists of a small clearing, a managed uniform pine canopy, and a discontinuous

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

Scale Observation Site (LSOS; Hardy et al. 2004 , 2007, manuscript submitted to J. Hydrometeor. ), which was within the U.S. Forest Service Fraser Experimental Forest [39.9°N, 105.9°W, 2780 m above sea level (ASL)] and is shown by the color infrared orthophotograph in Fig. 1a . A clearing separates two stands of contrasting structure. To the south of the clearing, there is a uniform lodgepole pine plantation; from manual surveying, the trees have an average height of 12.6 m with standard

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Nick Rutter, Don Cline, and Long Li

snowcover: Technical documentation for SNTHERM.89. Special Rep. 91-16, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, 64 pp . Jordan, R. , Andreas E. L. , and Makshtas A. P. , 1999 : Heat budget of snow-covered sea ice at North Pole 4. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 7785 – 7806 . 10.1029/1999JC900011 Koivusalo, H. , and Heikinheimo M. , 1999 : Surface energy exchange over a boreal snowpack: Comparison of two snow energy balance models. Hydrol

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