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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

1. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to document elements of the ocean and sea ice simulations in a new coupled climate model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This paper is a companion to that of Donner et al. (2011) , which focuses on the atmospheric formulation and simulation features of the climate model. In addition to being used to help address various hypothesis-driven scientific research questions, the GFDL Climate Model version 3 (CM3) will be one

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

necessary for future research on phenomena such as the Southern Hemisphere annular mode, which likely plays a role in interannual variability important for decadal prediction ( Thompson and Solomon 2006 ). Section 2 describes the AM3 dynamical core. Section 3 presents its physical parameterizations, while appendix A presents brief summaries of the land, ocean, and sea ice models used with AM3 in CM3. Section 4 illustrates basic simulation characteristics of AM3 with prescribed sea surface

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

. 1997 ; Lohmann et al. 1999b ; Storelvmo et al. 2006 ; Ming et al. 2007 ; Gettelman et al. 2008 ). It takes the following general form: where the first two terms on the RHS represent the change in cloud drop number due to advection and mixing (turbulent and convective). The third term is the source of cloud drop from nucleation. It is a function of . The last term denotes various sinks, such as evaporation and conversion to rain and ice. 3. AM3 subgrid nucleation assumptions We now summarize

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

phase reactions covering the HO x , NO x , ClO x , and BrO x catalytic cycles. Heterogeneous reactions are included in ternary solutions, and on the surfaces of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). All chemical reactions are included throughout the model atmosphere. Thus, for example, nonmethane hydrocarbon reactions are simulated in the stratosphere as well as the troposphere, even though in the former case the molecular concentrations may be very low and

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