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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

, simulations that use both the radiation and two-moment cloud microphysics scheme are conducted in order to investigate aerosol–cloud–radiation interaction with our weakly (WACM) and strongly (SACM) absorbing dust optical properties. It should be noted that the simulations do not permit interaction between the atmosphere and ocean and that simulations are forced with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) ( Donlon et al. 2012 ). Table 1

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

– 597 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828 . 10.1002/qj.828 DeMott , P. J. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Predicting global atmospheric ice nuclei distributions and their impacts on climate . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 107 , 11 217 – 11 222 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910818107 . 10.1073/pnas.0910818107 Dunion , J. P. , 2011 : Rewriting the climatology of the tropical North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea atmosphere . J. Climate , 24 , 893 – 908 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3496.1 . 10

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

-EnKF intensity forecasts initialized during this period performed poorly, the reasons for intensity error are explored through an analysis of the sensitivity to the sea surface temperature (SST) field and through comparisons between the ensemble simulations and observational data. Section 2 describes the WRF-EnKF setup and operational data utilized, while section 3 presents the composite analyses of Nadine’s track and intensity forecasts with comparisons to the HS3 observations. Finally, section 4

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

with the low clouds in the eye. The black dashed line shows the approximate flight path (line segments through dropsonde points only). Short curved line segments indicate dropsonde horizontal trajectories, with the release point coinciding with the flight path. Dropsonde times (UTC) are indicated. (b) Storm-relative tangential and (c) radial velocities, and (d) relative humidity with respect to water for temperatures ≥273.15K and with respect to ice at colder temperatures (color shading) from

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

Caribbean Sea ( Fig. 1a ) and was upgraded to Tropical Storm (TS) Edouard 12 h later (at 0000 UTC 12 September). Edouard steadily intensified as it tracked west-northwest over the next several days, reaching hurricane status by 1200 UTC 14 September, which continued until 16 September when Edouard reached its peak intensity of 105 kt (1 kt = 0.5144 m s −1 ). Almost immediately after reaching peak intensity, Edouard steadily weakened as it recurved toward the northeast in the central Atlantic, east of

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Stephen R. Guimond

quadrant. Outward-sloping updrafts occur above both towers. They coincide with a maximum in reflectivity between 6- and 11-km altitude, which indicates a large amount of ice and its convection appears separate from the shallow reflectivity towers. The upper-level reflectivity and w maxima are consistent with past studies that highlight enhanced upward motion and ice at the upper levels of the eyewall ( Lord et al. 1984 ; Black et al. 1996 ; Braun 2002 ; Zipser 2003 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). At this

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