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  • IFloodS 2013: A Field Campaign to Support the NASA-JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission x
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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

changes from 3.2 to 3.4 focused on land ice and sea ice ( NCAR 2012 ) and did not result in significant differences in soil moisture, runoff, or land surface fluxes based on other offline analyses (not shown). These changes only apply to offline simulations but not to a coupled WRF run, so the differences between different Noah LSM versions should not affect results in this study. 3. Data and methodology Two observational datasets are employed for model evaluation. The stage IV ( Lin and Mitchell 2005

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Haonan Chen, V. Chandrasekar, and Renzo Bechini

optional input. The overall structure of this region-based classification methodology is depicted in step 2 in Fig. 2 . First, traditional bin-based fuzzy-logic approach with four general blocks (i.e., fuzzification, inference, aggregation, and defuzzification) is implemented to get initial classification results ( Liu and Chandrasekar 2000 ; Lim et al. 2005 ; Dolan and Rutledge 2009 ; Chandrasekar et al. 2013 ). The temperature profile is then adjusted based on the quality of wet ice

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

beneficial rains that replenish water resources, and in some cases, help end long-term droughts ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Ralph et al. 2013 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015a ). Over the central United States, a necessary condition for the occurrence of major heavy rainfall events leading to floods is the presence of moist air advected by the Great Plains LLJ from oceanic sources, including the tropical Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea ( Dirmeyer and Kinter 2009 , 2010

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