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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

are last presented in section 5 . 2. Model introduction and experimental design 2.1. Model This study uses the CESM developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) ( Collins et al. 2006 ). The CESM is a fully coupled Earth system model that includes four separate model components that can simultaneously simulate Earth’s atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice physics. The atmosphere component of the CESM is the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), which uses a Lin–Rood finite

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

). Overall, these studies conclude that large cities contribute to an enhanced coastal temperature gradient, resulting in thermal mesoscale circulations where the UHI and sea-breeze front converge. Moreover, if an inland urban area exists, the combined urban–coastal circulation is stronger and lasts longer than a typical sea breeze ( Ohashi and Kida 2002 ). California is a good example of a coastal region that has undergone intense urbanization. In 1900, California was home to less than 2 million people

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

.21 is used in this study, which spans the period of 1901 to 2012, with monthly temporal resolution and 0.5° by 0.5° spatial resolution ( Mitchell et al. 2004 ). The monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST), version 1.1, at 1° spatial resolution is used in this study as the indicator of ocean heat sources. HadISST temperatures from 1870 to present are reconstructed using a two-stage, reduced space, optimal interpolation procedure, followed by the

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

how this influences the extent to which LUC impacts climate. Section 2 gives a description of the HadCM3 climate model and the simulations used in this study. The results are outlined in section 3 followed by an energy balance analysis in section 4 . A discussion and summary is presented in section 5 . 2. Methods HadCM3 is a coupled Earth system model comprising a 3D dynamical atmosphere and ocean components and includes a thermodynamic/free-drift sea ice model ( Gordon et al. 2000 ). The

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

.3711 . 10.1002/joc.3711 Hartmann , D. L. , 2007 : The atmospheric general circulation and its variability . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 85B , 123 – 143 , doi: 10.2151/jmsj.85B.123 . 10.2151/jmsj.85B.123 Hopsch , S. , J. Cohen , and K. Dethloff , 2012 : Analysis of a link between fall Arctic sea ice concentration and atmospheric patterns in the following winter . Tellus , 64A , 18624 , doi: 10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18624 . 10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18624 Jensen , A. D. , 2015 : A dynamic

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

( Kjellström et al. 2010 ), for the Last Glacial Maximum ( Strandberg et al. 2011 ), and for 200 yr before present (BP) and 6000 yr BP ( Strandberg et al. 2014 ). RCA4 is run on a horizontal grid spacing of 0.44° (corresponding to approximately 50 km) over Europe with 24 vertical levels and a time step of 30 min. Every 6 h, RCA4 reads surface pressure, humidity, temperature, and wind from ERA-Interim ( Dee et al. 2011 ) along the lateral boundaries of the model domain, and sea surface temperature and sea

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

FNL is produced using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS), which continuously collects observational data from various sources. The NCEP FNL data include variables that are used as boundary conditions for the outer WRF Model domain and STILT meteorological drivers (e.g., surface pressure, geopotential height, temperature, sea surface temperature, soil values, ice cover, relative humidity, u and v winds, and vertical motion). A domain setup with three nested grids (18-, 6-, and 2-km

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