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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

features downstream of lake- and sea-effect-producing bodies of water such as the Great Lakes, the Great Salt Lake, and the Sea of Japan (e.g., Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Murakami et al. 1994 ; Nakai and Endoh 1995 ; Yeager et al. 2013 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ). Even small topographic features such as the hills, plateaus, and upland regions downstream of the Great Lakes can dramatically enhance lake-effect precipitation (e.g., Hill 1971 ; Hjelmfelt 1992 ). Moist flow over such orography can

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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

1. Introduction Accurate prediction of the timing, location, and intensity of lake-effect snowfall is paramount for forecasters in lake-, sea-, and ocean-effect (hereafter simply lake effect) regions. Intense, often highly localized lake-effect snowfall can produce rapid and extreme accumulations, adversely impacting transportation, commerce, and property ( Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Schmidlin 1993 ; Kunkel et al. 2002 ). Especially strong lake-effect systems (i.e., complexes of lake

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

(<10 h), yielding downstream snowfall totals that were typically quite meager compared to the significant accumulations often seen with the more intense, long-lived LE storms over Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. According to their study, the highest frequency of LE events was associated with SL and CL. Part of this is due to the fact that these two lakes usually remain relatively warm and free of extensive ice coverage throughout the winter since they are quite deep for their size. 1 Fig . 1

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Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

evident from Fig. 8 . Several radiosonde soundings were collected during the UWKA flight ( Fig. 4 ): one on the southern lakeshore in Oswego, New York, just beyond the southern edge of the LLAP band, and two more under the band at the SC and NR sites. A deep well-mixed moist layer is present in all soundings, extending up to 3.2 km above mean sea level (MSL) at Oswego ( Fig. 2 ), 3.7 km MSL at SC, and 3.6 km MSL at NR. The capping layer in the SC and NR soundings is particularly stable, consistent

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

-collection strategies, initial findings, and lessons learned in conducting a field project in some of the worst winter weather observed in North America. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN. The OWLeS project was organized around three major components: 1) surface and atmospheric influences on lake-effect (SAIL) convection, which focused on the response of atmospheric flow over varying land, water, and ice surfaces; 2) long-lake-axis-parallel (LLAP) snow systems, associated with some of the most intense snowfalls in

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

et al. 2013 ). Although the dynamical cause of lake-effect snow is convective instability, lake-effect cloud morphologies can be stratiform or convective in character. Broadly, clouds classified as convective have updrafts strong enough to loft ice and snow particles (exceeding ~1 m s −1 ), high spatial and temporal variability, and supercooled water droplets that facilitate hydrometeor growth by collection. In contrast, stratiform clouds have weaker updrafts, reduced horizontal and temporal

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Peter G. Veals and W. James Steenburgh

snowfall over the Great Lakes increase through the fall, peak in early winter, and then decrease as the lakes cool and, in some winters, become partially or fully ice covered ( Niziol et al. 1995 ). Kristovich and Spinar (2005) suggest that the lake-effect precipitation frequency in the Great Lakes region is highest in the overnight/early morning hours and lowest in the afternoon. Steenburgh et al. (2000) and Alcott et al. (2012) describe a similar diurnal modulation of lake-effect frequency over

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Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Kevin Knupp, Kyle Pennington, and Paul Robinson

due to the decrease in low-level updraft strength as warming from the lake surface ended contributed to the demise of the misovortices. Misovortices also have been observed downwind of the Sea of Japan during cold air outbreaks (e.g., Inoue et al. 2011 ; Inoue et al. 2016 ). Inoue et al. (2011) documented the occurrence of four misovortices within the comma echo of a winter system, one of which was associated with F0 damage. The misovortices dissipated quickly after landfall, which the authors

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

1. Introduction The apparent orographic enhancement of lake-, sea-, and ocean-effect (hereafter referred to collectively as “lake effect”) precipitation occurs downstream of bodies of water around the world including the Laurentian Great Lakes, the Great Salt Lake, and the Sea of Japan (e.g., Magono et al. 1966 ; Muller 1966 ; Hjelmfelt 1992 ; Niziol et al. 1995 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Yamada et al. 2010 ; Alcott and Steenburgh 2013 ; Yeager et al. 2013 ; Veals

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Jake P. Mulholland, Jeffrey Frame, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Scott M. Steiger, Karen A. Kosiba, and Joshua Wurman

-level convergence zones are common in LLAP bands and may be augmented by land breezes from opposing shores as surrounding land locations are usually colder than the lake surface, especially before sunrise (e.g., Markowski and Richardson 2010 , 98–102). Previous lake-effect research has primarily focused on the western Great Lakes, such as Lakes Michigan and Superior [e.g., the Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE); Kristovich et al. (2000) ]. Some of these studies, including Forbes and Merritt (1984

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