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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

.g., temperature, dewpoint temperature, and wind). Additional binomial filtering was applied to sounding-derived parameter profiles (such as vertical velocity; discussed further in section 4 ) to smooth unresolvable noise. Based on uncertainty of their accuracy, shallow surface superadiabatic layers were reduced or eliminated by excluding data concurrent with measured lapse rates exceeding 25°C km −1 . Due to the disparity in launch elevation across the complex terrain [0.4–1.6 km above mean sea level (MSL

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

subtracted from base state winds) was not possible, thus necessitating the relatively large domain size and coarser horizontal and vertical grid spacings. The two-moment Morrison microphysics package ( Morrison et al. 2009 ) was used in all simulations with hail as the prognostic rimed ice hydrometeor species. The simulations used a time step of 3 s, were integrated for 8 h, and model output was saved every 5 min. Coriolis acceleration was turned on for a sensitivity test simulation for the 4500 m

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

temperature anomalies are used. The Niño-3.4 region extends from 5°N–5°S and 120°–170°W in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. This region has been used by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Climate Prediction Center since 1996 to analyze the phase and magnitude of ENSO ( Trenberth 1997 ). The standardized anomalies are calculated using the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset, version 1 (HadISST1; Rayner et al. 2003 ). An El Niño or La Niña event is determined to

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

Argentina. With time, this will be a promising avenue to explore hail within this region, but currently the data record is not extensive enough for a thorough analysis. Fig . 1. Southern South America with topography shaded and the study area outlined. As a result, the most comprehensive way to examine the climatology of hail in subtropical South America and compare these results to other parts of the world is to use passive microwave satellite observations of ice hydrometeors. These measurements have

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

. Charette , 2013 : Four-dimensional ensemble-variational data assimilation for global deterministic weather prediction . Nonlinear Processes Geophys. , 20 , 669 – 682 , https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-20-669-2013 . 10.5194/npg-20-669-2013 CISL , 2019 : Cheyenne: HPE/SGI ICE XA System (University Community Computing). NCAR , https://doi.org/10.5065/D6RX99HX . 10.5065/D6RX99HX Clark , M. P. , and Coauthors , 2008 : Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE): A modular framework to

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