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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

; Heymsfield et al. 2010 ). Leppert and Cecil (2015) did show 10.7-GHz ice scattering reducing the AMPR brightness temperatures up to about 40 K in Oklahoma severe thunderstorms. HIRAD’s frequencies could conceivably be useful for identifying large hail in severe thunderstorms, but comparable conditions are exceedingly rare in hurricanes. Conceptually, the retrieval should account for strong winds generating foam on the sea surface and raising the brightness temperatures in all C-band frequencies, and

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

an f plane at 15°N latitude, over a sea surface with a constant temperature of 30.5°C, which is based on that analyzed near Hurricane Patricia (2015; Kimberlain et al. 2016 ). Horizontal turbulence was parameterized using the Smagorinsky scheme described in Bryan and Rotunno (2009 , p. 1773), with a prescribed mixing length that varied linearly from 100 m at a surface pressure of 1015 hPa to 1000 m at a surface pressure of 900 hPa. Vertical turbulence was parameterized using the formulation

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

PI theory, but with a distinct focus on local heating and cooling sources rather than on the system-scale heat source (sea surface temperature) and sink (outflow temperature). We investigate these different conceptual frameworks and physical mechanisms in this study through experiments using idealized WRF ensembles that include longwave cooling and full diurnal radiation with shortwave heating. These experiments include cloud–radiative feedbacks that can alter both the convection and storm

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

1. Introduction Hurricane Patricia (2015) was an extraordinary rapidly intensifying storm that broke records in terms of both its peak intensity and the intensification rate over the eastern North Pacific and the North Atlantic basins, with a minimum central sea level pressure P MIN of 872 hPa and a maximum surface wind V MAX of over 95 m s −1 , as well as an extraordinary rapid intensification (RI) rate of 54 m s −1 and 97 hPa day −1 ( Rogers et al. 2017 ), where RI is defined herein as

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

simulation (synthetic), (e) 2009 Rick, and (f) the control CM1 simulation (synthetic). Magenta arrows are shear direction only . Red “×” in (a)–(d) identifies the arc. Cyan crosses indicate either the best track center (a)–(c),(e) or the low-level center (d). Units of the abscissa and ordinates of the CM1 simulations are km. One of the contributing elements to synthetic brightness temperature is number concentration of scattering particles (ice, graupel, snow). To gain an understanding of the vertical

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

water c , rainwater r , ice i , snow s , or graupel g , the last of which is the “large ice” specie in the chosen microphysics scheme. This is a generalization that includes both liquid water path and ice water path, a factor that allows this metric to indicate deep convection better than reflectivity since it accounts for a total vertical integral of all water condensate (e.g., Xu and Randall 2001 ; Carrió et al. 2005 ; Pattnaik et al. 2011 ). Figure 8a is a radial sum of total condensed

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

) winds (MSW) increased to 35 kt (~18 m s −1 ) at 0000 UTC 21 October and 60 kt (~31 m s −1 ) at 0000 UTC 22 October. Over the next 36 h, Patricia explosively intensified from a tropical storm to a category-5 hurricane, arriving at a remarkable peak with MSW of 185 kt (~95 m s −1 ) and minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) of 872 hPa at 1200 UTC 23 October. The MSW and rate of RI broke historical records for TCs ( Rogers et al. 2017 ; Knapp et al. 2010 ). During the next 24 h, the storm rapidly weakened

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

scan a full Earth disk at 10-min intervals. The spatial resolution is also enhanced to 0.5 km for band 3 in the visible wavelength, and the two other visible bands and band 4 in the near-infrared have 1-km resolution. Two other near-infrared bands and all infrared bands have a spatial resolution of 2 km. The infrared band 11 is used for detection of thin ice cloud such as is often found at the edge of the TC cirrus outflow, and infrared band 16 is used for cloud-top height assignment. The three

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

) is first integrated in a quiescent environment. Then the westerly jet is added into the experiment at t = 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, respectively. At t = 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, the minimum sea level pressures are 970, 940, 900, and 885 hPa, respectively, indicating that the TC intensity stage is relatively weak, intensifying, strong, and strongest. The top two rows in Fig. 14 provide some snapshots of the large-domain horizontal wind speed in those experiments, while the bottom two rows of Fig

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

a model top of 29.4 km. Consistent with the innermost 5-km nest of the operational COAMPS-TC from 2014 to 2016, no deep convective scheme is employed. However, a parameterization of shallow convection is used. The planetary boundary layer is parameterized using a 1.5-order turbulence closure ( Hodur 1997 ). The model was run with dissipative heating ( Jin et al. 2007 ) but without radiation. Microphysics is specified via prognostic equations for mixing ratios of cloud droplets, ice particles

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