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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR reanalysis (NNR; Kalnay et al. 1996 ). The lower boundary over the open oceans and sea ice are prescribed with the Hadley Centre sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice dataset (HadSST1; Rayner et al. 2003 ). The 1° global monthly SST and sea ice data were first spatially interpolated into the RCM grids, then linearly interpolated into daily values for the RCM. We applied the RCM to simulate surface climate for 12 yr from 1 January 1990 through 31 December 2001. Because we

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

latitudes is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems in this region ( Serreze et al. 2000 ; Overland et al. 2004 ; Stow et al. 2004 ; Chapin et al. 2005a ; Chapin et al. 2005b ; Hinzman et al. 2005 ; Euskirchen et al. 2006 ; Serreze and Francis 2006 ). Some of these changes may be irreversible on century time scales (e.g., sea ice, soil carbon, and thermohaline circulation), and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the Earth system by substantially

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Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, Ute Christina Herzfeld, Charles Fowler, and Wanli Wu

NCEP–NCAR and ERA reanalyses. J. Climate 13 : 182 – 201 . Serreze , M. C. , J. R. Key , J. E. Box , J. A. Maslanik , and K. Steffen . 1998 . A new monthly climatology of global radiation for the Arctic and comparisons with NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and ISCCP-C2 fields. J. Climate 11 : 121 – 136 . Serreze , M. C. Coauthors 2003 . A record minimum arctic sea ice extent and area in 2002. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 . 1110, doi:10.129/2002GL016406 . Serreze , M. C. , A. P

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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

× 25 km EASE-Grid cell. Two Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based land cover classifications for Alaska ( Fleming 1997 ) and Canada ( Cihlar and Beaubien 1998 ) were merged and aggregated into five major vegetation types using an expert model ( Calef et al. 2005 ). The cover types are black spruce, white spruce, deciduous forest, tundra, coastal forest, and bare ground (encompasses areas of rock and ice). With 1991 as the base year, transient land cover was interpolated backward

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