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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Thomas M. Rickenbach

formation of Typhoon Doris (1958) in the western Pacific. Vertical profiles of Q 1 and Q 2 —the first ever to be presented—were shown in Yanai (1961) for the period of the transformation of Doris from a cold-core to warm-core tropical cyclone. Following Yanai et al. (1973) , but including ice processes, we write the equations for the apparent heat source and moisture sink as follows: where c , e , d , s * , f , and m are condensation, evaporation, deposition, sublimation, freezing, and

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

surface geostrophic circulation, vector wind field, surface and internal gravity waves, sea ice, and a host of air–sea interaction processes. The success of Seasat had led the way to today’s capability of observing the global ocean with active sensors. In addition to radar active remote sensing, another important development was passive microwave radiometry and advanced visible and infrared sensors for measuring ocean surface properties like temperature, salinity, wind speed, and ocean color (in

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

wind vector. Precipitation data are from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) 1979–2017 ( Xie and Arkin 1997a ), SST data are from Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST) 1870–2017 ( Rayner et al. 2003 ), and wind data are from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) 1979–2017 ( Dee et al. 2011 ). Fig . 8-2. Seasonal cycle along the equator (2°S–2°N) in (top) SST (contour interval

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

by modulating the heat and moisture fluxes in the surface layer and lower troposphere ( Curry et al. 1996 ; Beesley and Moritz 1999 ). During Arctic winters when temperatures fall well below −30°C and relative humidity with respect to liquid water (RHw) exceeds 80%, even a shallow layer of ice fog will significantly affect the surface energy budget ( Blanchet and Girard 1995 ; Curry et al. 1990 , 1996 ). Sea ice thickness and snow cover also are impacted because of ice fog’s interaction with

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

added to early knowledge of Arctic meteorology, mainly by providing observations (e.g., Kane 1854 ; Kane and Schot 1859 ; Tyson and Howgate 1879 ; Bessels 1876 ) for comparison with modern observational data and also descriptions of the atmospheric (as well as ice and ocean) phenomena they encountered. Steep inversions and associated mirages, ice fog, sea ice ridges and leads, and floating ice islands are examples. The first documented measurements of surface-based inversions were actually made

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Zamin A. Kanji, Luis A. Ladino, Heike Wex, Yvonne Boose, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Martina Krämer

composed of a mix of sucrose and sea salt showed similar onsets for deposition IN as pure sucrose and glucose particles at RH i < RH hom between −50° and −60°C as shown by purple stars and filled circles in Fig. 1-3 ( Baustian et al. 2010 ; Schill and Tolbert 2014 ). Wang et al. (2012) and Ignatius et al. (2016) found that SOA particles are able to nucleate ice via immersion freezing at T > −40°C (black open stars and half open triangles in Fig. 1-3 ). In the latter study, immersion

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

Coauthors , 2016 : Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA , 113, 5797–5803, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1514034112 . 10.1073/pnas.1514034112 Dong , Y. Y. , and J. Hallett , 1989 : Droplet accretion during rime growth and the formation of secondary ice crystals . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 115 , 127 – 142 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49711548507 . 10.1002/qj.49711548507 Ferrier , B. S. , 1994 : A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

and airspeed ( Korolev et al. 1998 ; Cober et al. 2001b ; Field et al. 2004 ). Hot-wire sensors with concave shapes (e.g., the Nevzorov TWC and SEA TWC probes) are designed to measure the total condensate amount by vaporizing both liquid water drops and ice particles. All hydrometeors are expected to be trapped and completely vaporized within the concave structures. Because of the different response to ice particles and liquid droplets, LWC and IWC in mixed-phase clouds can be separated and

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Anna Luebke, Phil Brown, Daniel J. Cziczo, Charmaine Franklin, Paul Lawson, Ulrike Lohmann, Greg McFarquhar, Zbigniew Ulanowski, and Kristof Van Tricht

with the observations by Cziczo et al. (2013) . 6. Challenges to our understanding of cirrus formation, evolution, and microphysical properties According to chapter 7 of the IPCC report ( Boucher et al. 2013 , p. 583), “Especially for ice clouds, and for interactions between aerosols and clouds, our understanding of the basic micro-scale physics is not yet adequate, although it is improving.” In particular, the complex interactions among cirrus cloud microphysics and dynamics and radiation, sea

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

.g., see summary in Serreze and Barry (2011) ]. The high sensitivity of the Arctic to climate change is a result of the susceptibility of the cryosphere (sea ice, land ice, and permafrost) to changes in energy fluxes and influential feedback processes. For example, over the Arctic sea ice, the strong sea ice–albedo feedback amplifies the observed decline in ice extent (e.g., Wendler et al. 2010 ). Faster changes in the Arctic relative to lower latitudes disturb the latitudinal energy balance and

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