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Ruibo Lei, Zhijun Li, Yanfeng Cheng, Xin Wang, and Yao Chen

1. Introduction Sea ice plays an important role in the global climate system ( Vavrus and Harrison 2003 ) and also is the most sensitive indicator of local and global climate change ( Vinnikov et al. 1999 ; Heil 2006 ). Sea ice thickness is the most fundamentally integrative and crucially important parameter for describing ice conditions. The uncertainty of ice thickness measurements is the major difficulty in setting the ocean heat flux from ice mass and temperature measurements ( Heil et al

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Jun Inoue, Judith A. Curry, and James A. Maslanik

estimating the ice concentration during the summer melt season, understanding the melt-pond evolution during summer is vital to understanding the sea ice–albedo feedback. Curry et al. (1995 , 2001 ) argue that explicit treatment of melt ponds in climate models is needed for correct simulation of the sea ice albedo feedback. Evolution of melt ponds also modifies the amount of shortwave radiation into the open water through multiple reflections ( Inoue et al. 2005a ). Based on observations obtained

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Keith Jackson, Jeremy Wilkinson, Ted Maksym, David Meldrum, Justin Beckers, Christian Haas, and David Mackenzie

1. Introduction This paper describes the development of a new ice mass balance (IMB) buoy that uses the established principle of measuring temperatures at closely spaced intervals down a chain of sensors deployed through sea ice. However, this new IMB buoy uses a novel construction method for the chain that allows opportunities for dramatic reduction in cost and complexity compared to previous thermistor chain designs. Also, we describe a heated anemometer mode that allows for identification of

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Alexander B. Rabinovich, Georgy V. Shevchenko, and Richard E. Thomson

Island in the Sea of Okhotsk and moored current meter data on the west coast of Canada. Results for the sea ice data only are reported in this study ( section 4 ). Comparison of our four-parameter vector regression model and the more traditional two-parameter complex transfer function model for ice-drift data enables us to characterize the advantages and limitations of each model. The main results are discussed in section 5 . 2. Vector regressional model The effect of coastlines on winds and wind

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Haruhiko Kashiwase, Kay I. Ohshima, Yasushi Fukamachi, Sohey Nihashi, and Takeshi Tamura

1. Introduction Sea ice production in coastal polynyas is a key process in the global climate system. Coastal polynyas are areas of thin ice or open water sustained by divergent ice motion due to wind and ocean currents ( Barber and Massom 2007 ). During the winter, heat loss in coastal polynyas is one or two orders of magnitude greater than that in the surrounding thicker sea ice areas ( Maykut 1978 ), and high ice production occurs in such limited areas. A large coastal polynya frequently

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Hangzhou Wang, Ying Chen, Hong Song, and Samuel R. Laney

1. Introduction Photosynthetic algae are a key component of sea ice ecosystems. Rich algal communities can be found in melt ponds that form on the ice or snow surface, in complex brine networks internal to the porous ice itself, in layers attached to the bottom of sea ice, and in the water column immediately below ( Arrigo and Thomas 2004 ). The biomass, taxonomic composition, and photosynthetic behavior of these algal communities are each shaped by complex interactions between incident solar

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Igor Podgorny, Dan Lubin, and Donald K. Perovich

1. Introduction The remoteness and harsh environment of polar regions have recently motivated innovative and effective use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for studies of atmospheric science, sea ice, and climate change. Inoue et al. (2008) used Aerosonde UAVs to map melt pond fraction on Arctic sea ice, and Tschudi et al. (2008) used these measurements to test satellite retrievals of melt pond coverage. Similarly, Aerosondes have been successfully used in wintertime boundary layer energy

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J. N. Stroh, Gleb Panteleev, Max Yaremchuk, Oceana Francis, and Richard Allard

1. Introduction Sea ice models are an important component of any ice–ocean data assimilation (DA) system in the Arctic Ocean (AO) and the Southern Ocean. Currently, there are several DA systems that are widely applied to reconstruct Arctic ice conditions in reanalysis or quasi-operational mode. For example, there are systems based on the MITgcm ( Menemenlis et al. 2008 ; Heimbach 2008 ; Forget et al. 2015 ; Fenty et al. 2017 ), ROMS ( Wang et al. 2013 ), HYCOM ( Lisæter et al. 2007 ; Sakov

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Alain Caya, Mark Buehner, and Tom Carrieres

1. Introduction Accurate and timely sea ice information in the Northern Hemisphere is greatly needed because of the increasing focus on northern regions for reasons of both economic development and national sovereignty. The changing Arctic climate, as demonstrated by record low ice coverage in recent years, is leading to increased marine transportation and natural resource development in and around ice-infested waters. These changes to the climate also represent a challenge for traditional

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D. A. Rothrock and Mark Wensnahan

1. Introduction Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean appears to be in decline, both in extent and in thickness ( Parkinson et al. 1999 ; Stroeve et al. 2005 ; Rothrock et al. 1999 ; Tucker et al. 2001 ; Wadhams and Davis 2000 ). Observations of ice draft (about 89% of thickness) are available from upward-looking sonars (ULSs) on naval submarines and on moorings. This paper addresses the measurement accuracy of ice draft observations from U.S. Navy submarines. The U.S. Navy’s Arctic Submarine

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