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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1871 – 1891 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze , 1997 : Measurements of raindrop size distributions over the Pacific warm pool and implications for Z – R relations . J. Appl. Meteor. , 36 , 847 – 867 , doi: 10

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

Littoral Air–Sea Processes (LASP) ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ). Herein, these efforts will be referred to collectively as DYNAMO. Two MJO events were comprehensively sampled in DYNAMO, providing an unprecedented opportunity to diagnose the key processes during the transition from shallow to deep convection in the MJO. The MJO is a zonal overturning circulation that propagates eastward across the tropics at ~5 m s −1 in connection with an upper-level divergent wind pattern, which

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

variability in sea surface temperature (SST) coupling ( Flatau et al. 1997 ; Shinoda et al. 1998 ; Waliser et al. 1999 ), the discharge–recharge mechanism discussed by Hendon and Liebmann (1990) and Bladé and Hartmann (1993) , large-scale horizontal moisture advection ( Maloney 2009 ), and the moisture mode instability ( Raymond and Torres 1998 ; Raymond and Fuchs 2009 ; Sobel and Maloney 2013 ). However, none of the aforementioned theories fully explain the transition from dry to moist regimes

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1354 – 1372 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<1354:ETGMSO>2.0.CO;2 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Yuan , J. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 2013 : Deep convective systems observed by A-Train in the tropical Indo-Pacific region affected by the MJO . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 465 – 486 , doi: 10

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

significant variations in the relative concentrations of sea salt and anthropogenic aerosols over the CIO before, during, and after peak convective activity associated with the October and November MJO episodes (2011). Fine-mode, anthropogenic pollutants were found to be abundant in the time leading up to MJO onset before being washed out as the heavy rain associated with active MJO convection developed. In the wake of active MJO convection, sea salt aerosols were shown to increase during westerly wind

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE; Cheng and Houze 1979 ; Barnes and Seickman 1984 ; Szoke and Zipser 1986 ), the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; LeMone 1983 ; LeMone et al. 1998 ; Rickenbach and Rutledge 1998 , hereafter RR98 ), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment ( Johnson et al. 2005 ), the Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment ( Alexander and Young 1992 ), and experiments in northern Australia ( Keenan and Carbone 1992

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

1. Introduction The elusive understanding of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) continues to push the forefront of understanding tropical moist convection with regards to spatial- and temporal-scale interactions, air–sea feedbacks, teleconnections, and various other topics. This concentrated focus is driven by lack of a complete theory that explains the MJO initiation, growth, propagation, and spatial scale, as well as the failure of most general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately

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Ji-Eun Kim, Chidong Zhang, George N. Kiladis, and Peter Bechtold

high resolution without cumulus parameterization ( Miyakawa et al. 2014 ). A global model consisting of variable grids with regional refinement over the Indian Ocean has also been used, in which cumulus parameterization was used only outside the regional refinement domain ( Pilon et al. 2016 ). These models are constrained by observations only through the initial conditions and prescribed sea surface temperature, unless they are coupled ( Fu et al. 2015 ). Results from these global models are

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

boundary layer (not shown). We can note that this diurnal peak is present for all observations sites (land and sea) in the upper troposphere, as already observed between 11 and 17 km by Liu et al. (2014) over ocean. Based on these considerations, we treat our dataset as homogeneous and representative of open ocean above 1 km. c. Gravity wave activity A large number of studies use radiosonde observations in order to characterize internal GWs (e.g., Barat 1983 ; Fritts et al. 1988a ; Tsuda et al

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

China Sea, as well as a mean of many west Pacific warm pool events. A separation line between convective and stratiform rain was determined by BR09 using the Darwin, Australia, datasets. DSDs were considered convective (stratiform) if N w was greater (less) than a naturally emerging separator line: log 10 = −1.6 D 0 + 6.3. This partitioning method was found to be consistent with data from selected rain events in BR03 and with more data from Darwin by TH10 and Penide et al. (2013) . TH10

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